Topic Review
Translational Application of Fluorescent Molecular Probes
Ischemia and reperfusion injury comprise complex mechanisms involving disarrangement of the splanchnic microcirculatory flow and impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain due to initial hypoxemia and subsequent oxidative stress during the reperfusion phase. 
  • 402
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Liver cancer is very frequent, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of liver cancer cases. Its growing incidence has been greatly affected by the increasing prevalence of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The latter is a new epidemic in the era. In fact, HCC is often generated from noncirrhotic liver and its treatment benefits from surgical and nonsurgical approaches, potentially bridged by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) use. TIPS use is an effective treatment for portal hypertension complications, but its application in patients with HCC and clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) remains controversial due to concerns about tumor rupture, dissemination, and increased toxicity. 
  • 230
  • 24 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC. 
  • 817
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Training Simulators for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the gold standard in the detection and treatment of early and advanced GI cancers. However, conventional endoscopic techniques are technically demanding and require visual-spatial skills and significant hands-on experience. GI endoscopy simulators represent a valid solution to allow doctors to practice in a pre-clinical scenario.
  • 1.4K
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
TNF’s Pathway in CD
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disorder characterized by full thickness patchy inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and involves defective innate immune responses, microbiome alterations, and dysregulated activation of the acquired component of mucosal immunity. One of the molecular mediators that is involved at different levels in the initiation and progression of intestinal inflammation characteristic of CD is tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
  • 660
  • 15 Oct 2021
Topic Review
TLR4 Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Immunotherapy has emerged as the mainstay treatment option for unresectable HCC. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing and responding primarily to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In addition to its role in the innate immune system, TLR4 has also been implicated in adaptive immunity, including specific anti-tumor immune responses. In particular, the TLR4 signaling pathway seems to be involved in the regulation of several cancer hallmarks, such as the continuous activation of cellular pathways that promote cell division and growth, the inhibition of programmed cell death, the promotion of several invasion and metastatic mechanisms, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and epigenetic modifications. Emerging evidence further suggests that TLR4 signaling holds promise as a potential immunotherapeutic target in HCC
  • 301
  • 21 Nov 2023
Topic Review Video
Tissue Engineering in Liver Regenerative Medicine
Organ and tissue shortage are known as a crucially important public health problem as unfortunately a small percentage of patients receive transplants. Liver tissue engineering (TE) enables us to reproduce and restore liver functions, fully or partially, which could be used in the treatment of acute or chronic liver disorders and/or generate an appropriate functional organ which can be transplanted or employed as an extracorporeal device.
  • 686
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Tissue Biopsy-Based MSI Testing
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly-diagnosed cancer in the world and ranked second for cancer-related mortality in humans. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an indicator for Lynch syndrome (LS), an inherited cancer predisposition, and a prognostic marker which predicts the response to immunotherapy. A recent trend in immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment to provide medical alternatives that have not existed before. It is believed that MSI-high (MSI-H) CRC patients would benefit from immunotherapy due to their increased immune infiltration and higher neo-antigenic loads. MSI testing such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR MSI assay has historically been a tissue-based procedure that involves the testing of adequate tissue with a high concentration of cancer cells, in addition to the requirement for paired normal tissues. The invasive nature and specific prerequisite of such tests might hinder its application when surgery is not an option or when the tissues are insufficient. The application of next-generation sequencing, which is highly sensitive, in combination with liquid biopsy, therefore, presents an interesting possibility worth exploring. This review aimed to discuss the current body of evidence supporting the potential of liquid biopsy as a tool for MSI testing in CRC.
  • 993
  • 16 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Thyroid Hormone and MASLD
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), formerly termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a widespread global health concern that affects around 25% of the global population. Its influence is expanding, and it is anticipated to overtake alcohol as the leading cause of liver failure and liver-related death worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly linked to the development of MASLD. 
  • 126
  • 21 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Therapeutic Targeting of Intestinal Fibrosis in Crohn’s Disease
Intestinal fibrosis is one of the most threatening complications of Crohn’s disease. Endoscopic and surgical approaches are currently the only options available and there is an urgent need for targeted anti-fibrotic therapy. Several molecules investigated in preclinical studies, which are awaiting clinical trials in humans, have proven effective in CD stricturing phenotype and may be available in the near future as additional weapons in preventing or reversing intestinal fibrosis. 
  • 952
  • 24 Mar 2022
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