Topic Review
Therapeutic Quiver of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
The therapeutic quiver of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of several levels, of which lifestyle, pharmaceutical, and surgical approaches are the main treatments. A multimodal intervention with multiple aspects, such as lifestyle modification, weight loss, specific diets, and medication, is the most appropriate and holistic approach for most people with NAFLD.
  • 80
  • 27 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Therapeutic Options of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infections
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the human pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC). EHEC are responsible for severe colon infections associated with life-threatening extraintestinal complications such as the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and neurological disturbances. Endothelial cells in various human organs are renowned targets of Stx, whereas the role of epithelial cells of colon and kidneys in the infection process has been and is still a matter of debate.
  • 253
  • 15 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Options against Chronic HBV
Currently, Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is controlled but not cured by approved antivirals. For instance, transcriptionally active HBV DNA in the nucleus is not directly targeted. Except for interferon-α (IFN-α) and pegylated IFN-α, all other licensed drugs are nucleoside (Lamivudine, Clevudine, Entecavir, Telbivudine) and nucleotide analogues (Adefovir dipivoxil, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir alafenamide). All these drugs are potent at reducing viral loads and normalizing alanine transaminase levels in CHB patients. However, long-term treatment with many of these drugs leads to the development of multiple drug resistance mutations. In addition, while a limited reduction in cccDNA is achieved, long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment does not reduce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels.
  • 212
  • 14 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Theragnostic Strategies in Colorectal Cancer
Liquid biopsy has emerged as a minimally invasive tool that is capable of detecting genomic alterations from primary or metastatic tumors, allowing the prognostic stratification of patients, the detection of the minimal residual disease after surgical or systemic treatments, the monitoring of therapeutic response, and the development of resistance, establishing an opportunity for early intervention before imaging detection or worsening of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrated the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in promoting inflammatory responses and cancer initiation. Altered gut microbiota is associated with resistance to chemo drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors, whereas the use of microbe-targeted therapies including antibiotics, pre-probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation can restore response to anticancer drugs, promote immune response, and therefore support current treatment strategies in colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • 211
  • 10 Mar 2021
Topic Review
The Role of Immune Cells in Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an underlying excessive immune response directed against resident microbiota and/or dietary antigens. The condition is diagnosed mostly between the ages of 20 to 40, however it can occur at every age. Characteristic of UC are alternating periods of clinical relapse and remission.
  • 467
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
The Role of EPH/Ephrin System in the Pancreas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major concern for health care systems worldwide, since its mortality remains unaltered despite the surge in cutting-edge science. The EPH/ephrin signaling system was first investigated in the 1980s. EPH/ephrins have been shown to exert bidirectional signaling and cell-to-cell communication, influencing cellular morphology, adhesion, migration and invasion. 
  • 53
  • 04 May 2023
Topic Review
The Role of CH-EUS in Interventional EUS
Over the last decades, contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound (CH-EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool for the diagnosis and differentiation of several gastrointestinal diseases. The key advantage of CH-EUS is that the influx and washout of contrast in the target lesion can be observed in real time, accurately depicting microvasculature. CH-EUS is established as an evidence-based technique complementary to B-mode EUS to differentiate solid appearing structures, to characterize mass lesions, and to improve the staging of gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary cancer. In the last few years, interest has increased in the use of CH-EUS in interventional procedures such as tissue acquisition, tumor ablation, biliary drainage, and the management of pancreatic fluid collections.
  • 299
  • 02 Nov 2021
Topic Review
The Role of aHSCs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global healthcare challenge, which affects more than 815,000 new cases every year. Activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) remain the principal cells that drive HCC onset and growth. aHSCs suppress the anti-tumor immune response through interaction with different immune cells. They also increase the deposition of the extracellular matrix proteins, challenging the reversion of fibrosis and increasing HCC growth and metastasis.
  • 166
  • 27 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The Microbiome in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer and less than 10% of patients survive the 5-year mark. The molecular and biological underpinnings leading to this dismal prognosis are well-described, however, translation of these findings with subsequent improvement of the poor prognosis has been slow. The complex and dynamic accumulation of microbes, also called the microbiome, has attracted scientific interest in the pathogenesis of several diseases including pancreatic cancer. Since then, a limited number of significant findings were published pointing towards an important role of the microbiome in cancer, in particular pancreatic cancer.
  • 212
  • 16 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns worldwide, thanks to a combination of foods rich mainly in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients. Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the Mediterranean diet and some chronic gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • 151
  • 18 Jan 2023
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