Topic Review
γδ T Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a global health challenge with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis for advanced-stage patients. Recent advancements in cancer immunotherapy have generated significant interest in exploring novel approaches to combat HCC. One such approach involves the unique and versatile subset of T cells known as γδ T cells. γδ T cells represent a distinct subset of T lymphocytes that differ from conventional αβ T cells in terms of antigen recognition and effector functions. They play a crucial role in immunosurveillance against various malignancies, including HCC.
  • 63
  • 30 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide due to its high rates of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to play a significant role in HCC development, progression and clinical impact on tumor behavior.
  • 407
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Wilson’s Disease
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in ATP7B, which leads to a defective biliary excretion of copper. Subsequent gradual accumulation of copper in different organs produces an extremely variable clinical picture, which comprises hepatic, neurological psychiatric, ophthalmological, and other disturbances. WD has specific treatment, so that early diagnosis is crucial in order to avoid the progression of the disease and its devastating consequences. The clinical diagnosis of WD is based on the Leipzig scale, which considers clinical, histological, biochemical and genetic data. However, even patients with an initial WD diagnosis based on a high Leipzig score result to suffer from other condition that mimics the WD’s phenotype (Wilson-like).
  • 952
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
White-Light Endoscopy for Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with low long-term survival rates. An early diagnosis is essential to offer a better prognosis and curative treatment. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the main tool for the screening and diagnosis of patients with gastric pre-neoplastic conditions and early lesions. Under white-light endoscopy (WLE), early gastric cancer (EGC) should be suspected in the presence of mucosal surface irregularity and/or mucosal coloration changes.
  • 328
  • 13 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Vitamins in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) highlights the role of mucosal immunology and changes in the gut microbiome triggered by genetic and environmental factors including diet regiments, as suggested by many nutritional studies. Along with medications usually used for IBD treatment, therapeutic strategies also include the supplementation of micronutrients such as vitamin D, folic acid, iron, and zinc.
  • 438
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D, microbiome, and IBD
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e.g., vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g., butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling.
  • 667
  • 31 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D Signaling in Gastro-Rheumatology
Vitamin D has been recently pointed out, and abnormalities of the vitamin D axis have been described in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and arthritis.
  • 341
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D Metabolism in Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder involving the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes. Due to both calcium malabsorption and immune activation, a high prevalence of bone mass derangement is evident in this condition, regardless of the presence of overt malabsorption. In untreated patients, secondary hyperparathyroidism is responsible for the hyperconversion of 25-vitamin D into 1,25-vitamin D making mandatory the determination of serum levels of both vitamin metabolites to avoid a wrong diagnosis of vitamin D deficit. A gluten-free diet allows for a normalization of bone and mineral metabolism, reverting these abnormalities and raising some doubts on the need for vitamin supplementation in all the patients. 
  • 561
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Visceral Hypersensitivity Association with  Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a severe problem in the health service. It is estimated that it accounts for 3% of all medical consultations. Moreover, this diagnosis is made in the case of about 40% of all outpatient gastroenterological referrals. The visceral stimuli from the digestive tract are transmitted via afferent nerves through the spinal cord to the brain, where they are felt as pain. The overreaction observed in the brain of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be due to increased peripheral sensitivity to stimuli from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • 144
  • 11 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Virtual Chromoendoscopy in Capsule Endoscopy
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive endoscopic modality, which was initially introduced for the investigation of the small intestine, but currently a range of capsules are available that can facilitate the inspection of the entire GI tract.
  • 531
  • 17 Aug 2022
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