Topic Review
Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide due to its high rates of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to play a significant role in HCC development, progression and clinical impact on tumor behavior.
  • 185
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Wilson’s Disease
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in ATP7B, which leads to a defective biliary excretion of copper. Subsequent gradual accumulation of copper in different organs produces an extremely variable clinical picture, which comprises hepatic, neurological psychiatric, ophthalmological, and other disturbances. WD has specific treatment, so that early diagnosis is crucial in order to avoid the progression of the disease and its devastating consequences. The clinical diagnosis of WD is based on the Leipzig scale, which considers clinical, histological, biochemical and genetic data. However, even patients with an initial WD diagnosis based on a high Leipzig score result to suffer from other condition that mimics the WD’s phenotype (Wilson-like).
  • 507
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Vitamins in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) highlights the role of mucosal immunology and changes in the gut microbiome triggered by genetic and environmental factors including diet regiments, as suggested by many nutritional studies. Along with medications usually used for IBD treatment, therapeutic strategies also include the supplementation of micronutrients such as vitamin D, folic acid, iron, and zinc.
  • 234
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D, microbiome, and IBD
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e.g., vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g., butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling.
  • 465
  • 31 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D Signaling in Gastro-Rheumatology
Vitamin D has been recently pointed out, and abnormalities of the vitamin D axis have been described in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and arthritis.
  • 211
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D Metabolism in Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder involving the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes. Due to both calcium malabsorption and immune activation, a high prevalence of bone mass derangement is evident in this condition, regardless of the presence of overt malabsorption. In untreated patients, secondary hyperparathyroidism is responsible for the hyperconversion of 25-vitamin D into 1,25-vitamin D making mandatory the determination of serum levels of both vitamin metabolites to avoid a wrong diagnosis of vitamin D deficit. A gluten-free diet allows for a normalization of bone and mineral metabolism, reverting these abnormalities and raising some doubts on the need for vitamin supplementation in all the patients. 
  • 236
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Virtual Chromoendoscopy in Capsule Endoscopy
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive endoscopic modality, which was initially introduced for the investigation of the small intestine, but currently a range of capsules are available that can facilitate the inspection of the entire GI tract.
  • 332
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Virally Infected Donor Grafts
The ideal management for end stage liver disease, acute liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), within specific criteria, is liver transplantation (LT). Due to continuous increase in LT cases, there has been consideration to increase utilization of organs from donor livers which were previously discarded, including virally infected donor livers. 
  • 197
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Use of Herbal Dietary Supplements in the USA
Herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use has grown exponentially in the United States. Unfortunately, the incidence of HDS-related liver injury has proportionally increased. Despite the potential for certain HDSs to cause clinically significant liver injury, they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efforts have been made to regulate HDSs but are far removed from the scrutiny of prescription medications. Scant literature exists on HDSs and their risks of causing liver injury.
  • 186
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia
Biliary atresia is an aggressive liver disease of infancy and can cause death without timely surgical intervention. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is critical to the recovery of bile drainage and long-term transplant-free survival. Ultrasound is recommended as the initial imaging strategy for the diagnosis of biliary atresia. Numerous ultrasound features have been proved helpful for the diagnosis of biliary atresia. In recent years, with the help of new technologies such as elastography ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and artificial intelligence, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound has been significantly improved.
  • 257
  • 26 Jan 2022
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