Topic Review
“Small Hepatocytes” in the Liver
Mature hepatocytes (MHs) in an adult rodent liver are categorized into the following three subpopulations based on their proliferative capability: type I cells (MH-I), which are committed progenitor cells that possess a high growth capability and basal hepatocytic functions; type II cells (MH-II), which possess a limited proliferative capability; and type III cells (MH-III), which lose the ability to divide (replicative senescence) and reach the final differentiated state. These subpopulations may explain the liver’s development and growth after birth. Generally, small-sized hepatocytes emerge in mammal livers. The cells are characterized by being morphologically identical to hepatocytes except for their size, which is substantially smaller than that of ordinary MHs. We initially discovered small hepatocytes (SHs) in the primary culture of rat hepatocytes.
  • 283
  • 21 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Clostridioides difficile Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Patients
Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) represents a major health burden with substantial economic and clinical impact. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were identified as a risk category for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In addition to traditional risk factors for C. difficile acquisition, IBD-specific risk factors such as immunosuppression, severity and extension of the inflammatory disease were identified. C. difficile virulence factors, represented by both toxins A and B, induce the damage of the intestinal mucosa and vascular changes, and promote the inflammatory host response. Given the potential life-threatening complications, early diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are required. The screening for CDI is recommended in IBD exacerbations, and the diagnostic algorithm consists of clinical evaluation, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). An increased length of hospitalization, increased colectomy rate and mortality are the consequences of concurrent CDI in IBD patients. Selection of CD strains of higher virulence, antibiotic resistance, and the increasing rate of recurrent infections make the management of CDI in IBD more challenging.
  • 630
  • 08 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Clostridioides difficile Mouse Model
Clostridioides difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium associated with intestinal infection, manifesting a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms, ranging from mild diarrhea to severe colitis. A primary risk factor for the development of C. difficile infection (CDI) is antibiotic exposure. Elderly and immunocompromised individuals are particularly vulnerable to CDI. A pivotal aspect for comprehending the complexities of this infection relies on the utilization of experimental models that mimic human CDI transmission, pathogenesis, and progression. These models offer invaluable insights into host–pathogen interactions and disease dynamics, and serve as essential tools for testing potential therapeutic approaches.
  • 259
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
H. pylori Marker Detection
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes c.a. 50% of human stomachs worldwide and is the major risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. Its high genetic variability makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of early stages of infection that can reliably predict its outcome. 
  • 521
  • 01 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and Crohn’s Disease
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne’s disease (JD), which is a chronic infectious gastrointestinal disease of ruminants and is often fatal. In humans, MAP has been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) for over a century, without conclusive evidence of pathogenicity. Numerous researchers have contributed to the subject, but there is still a need for evidence of the causation of CD by MAP.
  • 189
  • 07 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Acacia Catechu Willd. for CRC
The research for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas is still a great challenge. Acacia catechu Willd. heartwood extract (AC) has health-promoting qualities, especially at gastrointestinal level. This study characterized AC for its catechins content and investigates the apoptotic-enhancing effect in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, along with its ability to spare healthy tissue. Results showed that AC  induced an increase in apoptotic cells and ROS formation, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential as well as increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity. AC did not affect rat ileum and colon rings viability and functionality, suggesting its safe profile toward healthy tissue. The present findings outline the potential of AC for colon cancer treatment.
  • 886
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Achalasia is an esophageal motor disease characterized by the lack of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and aperistalsis. The first time this condition was described was in 1672 by Sir Thomas Willis, but the "achalasia" term was only created in 1929 by Hurst and Rake, meaning "no relaxation".
  • 804
  • 31 May 2021
Topic Review
Acute Coronary Syndromes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induces a process of systemic inflammation, sharing common ground with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Growing evidence points towards a possible association between IBD and an increased risk of ACS.
  • 566
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Acute Liver Injury and COVID-19
COVID-19 patients with severe illness are likely to present with atypical liver biochemistry tests. A number of systematic and meta-analysis studies have examined pooled odds ratios of hepatocellular and hepatobiliary enzymes to differentiate between severe and non-severe COVID-19 illness. In a meta-analysis of 8 studies involving 7467 COVID-19 patients by Xin et al. individuals had pooled odds ratio of 3.21, 2.35 and 1.87 for elevated AST, ALT and total bilirubin levels respectively in severe illness.
  • 528
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Acute Pancreatitis
The incidence of acute and chronic pancreatitis is increasing in the United States. Rates of acute pancreatitis (AP) are similar in both sexes, but chronic pancreatitis (CP) is more common in males. When stratified by etiology, women have higher rates of gallstone AP, while men have higher rates of alcohol- and tobacco-related AP and CP, hypercalcemic AP, hypertriglyceridemic AP, malignancy-related AP, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). 
  • 643
  • 27 Jan 2021
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