Topic Review
Organizational Environment
The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization. These forces may hamper or facilitate the organization’s access to resources, which means they can both offer opportunities and pose threats. Moreover, while these resources are valuable for the organization, they are also scarce (Riggio, 2018). The forces encompassed by the concept of the organizational environment include, among others, competition between rivals to retain customers, fast-paced changed in technology, and an increase in the price of raw materials. All these factors may somehow erode an organization’s competitive advantage. Consequently, the forces at play in the environment can influence the organization’s behavior (Truxillo, Bauer & Erdogan, 2016). 
  • 38075
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Arginine Signaling and Cancer Metabolism
Arginine is an amino acid critically involved in multiple cellular processes including the syntheses of nitric oxide and polyamine, and is a direct activator of mTOR, a nutrient sensing kinase strongly implicated in carcinogenesis. In this review, we will discuss arginine as a signaling metabolite, arginine’s role in cancer metabolism, arginine as an epigenetic regulator, arginine as an immunomodulator, and arginine as a therapeutic target. The different cell killing mechanisms associated with various cancer types will also be described.
  • 36546
  • 23 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Psychological Manipulation
Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive. Social influence is not necessarily negative. For example, people such as friends, family and doctors, can try to persuade to change clearly unhelpful habits and behaviors. Social influence is generally perceived to be harmless when it respects the right of the influenced to accept or reject it, and is not unduly coercive. Depending on the context and motivations, social influence may constitute underhanded manipulation.
  • 15906
  • 28 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Cinnamon, Clove and Cumin against Urinary Tract Infections
Spices are aromatic plants widely used in Mexico to flavor, color, or preserve food. In particular, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Organization defined spices as: “whole, broken or ground aromatic vegetable substances, whose significant function in food is to flavor rather than to nourish”. Most of the beneficial health properties of spices are mediated through the direct action of their phytochemicals, especially polyphenols or polyphenol degradation products. These phytochemicals have broad antioxidant properties and target specific receptors or enzymes involved in various anti-inflammatory pathways or immune responses. Phenolic acids and flavonoids, especially flavones and flavonoids, are spices’ predominant class of polyphenols. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of spices are attributed to their unique volatile oils and oleoresins. Because spices are obtained from aromatic plants and herbs, they are generally considered safe (GRAS).
  • 12912
  • 28 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Nutritional Composition in Tomatoes
Tomatoes are consumed worldwide as fresh vegetables because of their high contents of essential nutrients and antioxidant-rich phytochemicals. Tomatoes contain minerals, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids (leucine, threonine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine), monounsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotenoids) and phytoster-ols (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). Lycopene is the main dietary carotenoid in tomato and tomato-based food products and lycopene consumption by humans has been reported to protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive function and osteoporosis. Among the phenolic compounds present in tomato, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, caffeic acid and lutein are the most common. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the human body against various oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary tomatoes in-crease the body’s level of antioxidants, trapping reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative damage to important biomolecules such as membrane lipids, enzymatic proteins and DNA, thereby ameliorating oxidative stress.
  • 11905
  • 04 Jan 2021
Topic Review Video
Nutritional Interventions
The importance of nutrition in human health is becoming increasingly clear. Despite the growing number of publications in this field, the quality of evidence supporting most nutritional recommendations is classified as "low". To improve the quality of evidence to support nutritional recommendations, the quality of research in this field must be improved. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) are a design that can help to provide high-quality evidence; however, conducting a RCT based on a nutritional intervention can be difficult due to the heterogeneous nature of the intervention and the number of variables that must be considered. Following a review of methodological and ethical standards, as well as four extensions of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines applicable to nutritional interventions, a series of definitions, examples, diagrams, and algorithms of key aspects that should be considered when conducting a RCT based on a nutritional intervention were identified.
  • 11799
  • 17 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Ivermectin as Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral
The small molecule macrocyclic lactone ivermectin, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has received attention in the last eight years due to its exciting potential as an antiviral. It was identified in a high-throughput chemical screen as inhibiting recognition of the nuclear localizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) integrase protein by the host heterodimeric importin (IMP) α/β1 complex, and has since been shown to bind directly to IMPα to induce conformational changes that prevent its normal function in mediating nuclear import of key viral and host proteins. Excitingly, cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Chikungunya virus, Pseudorabies virus, adenovirus, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Phase III human clinical trials have been completed for DENV, with >60 trials currently in progress worldwide for SARS-CoV-2.
  • 11792
  • 30 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Black Cumin and Kidney Injury
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, and a close association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and CKD has recently been identified. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) has been shown to be effective in treating various kidney diseases. Accumulating evidence shows that black cumin and its vital compound, thymoquinone (TQ), can protect against kidney injury caused by various xenobiotics, namely chemotherapeutic agents, heavy metals, pesticides, and other environmental chemicals. Black cumin can also protect the kidneys from ischemic shock. The mechanisms underlying the kidney protective potential of black cumin and TQ include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and antifibrosis which are manifested in their regulatory role in the antioxidant defense system, NF-κB signaling, caspase pathways, and TGF-β signaling. 
  • 11709
  • 01 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Adolescents Malnutrition
Adolescents are young individuals that are between the ages of 10 and 19 years old.  Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in an individual intake of energy and/or nutrients 
  • 11402
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Nasolabial Angle in Orthodontic Diagnosis
The nasolabial angle (NLA) is one of the key factors to be studied in an orthodontic diagnosis for the aesthetics of the nose and facial profile.
  • 10031
  • 06 Feb 2022
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