Topic Review
Apelinergic System in Brain Diseases
Apelin, a peptide initially isolated from bovine stomach extract, is an endogenous ligand for the Apelin Receptor (APLNR). Subsequently, a second peptide, ELABELA, that can bind to the receptor has been identified. The Apelin receptor and its endogenous ligands are widely distributed in mammalian organs. A growing body of evidence suggests that this system participates in various signalling cascades that can regulate cell proliferation, blood pressure, fluid homeostasis, feeding behaviour, and pituitary hormone release. Additional research has been done to elucidate the system’s potential role in neurogenesis, the pathophysiology of Glioblastoma multiforme, and the protective effects of apelin peptides on some neurological and psychiatric disorders-ischemic stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s disease. Mounting evidence suggests that the apelinergic system is a prominent player in the pathogenesis of different neuronal and mental diseases, such as stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s, among others.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Proteomics in the ALS–FTD Spectrum Disorders
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are severely debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative disorders. A distinctive pathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS and FTD, is the deposition of aberrant protein inclusions in neuronal cells, which leads to cellular dysfunction and neuronal damage and loss Protein aggregate analysis, the identification of aggregated abnormal protein interactions and of proteins with an anomalous quaternary structure, may help to identify the pathological mechanisms involved in ALS–FTD. Several proteomic-based studies have been carried out on ALS–FTD spectrum disorders to explore the relevance of disease-related proteins and their potential roles in clinical practice. In ALS, aberrant protein folding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates are two crucial biological features. Indeed, the incorrect assembly of the protein in its native form leads to toxic molecules that potentially cause an overload of the degradation machine.
  • 12
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Health Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin
8-Prenylnaringenin is a natural compound biosynthesised in the lupulin glands of the hop inflorescences. It is the substance with the highest estrogenic activity known so far in the plant kingdom. As estrogens have many targets in animals and humans, the health effects of 8-prenylnaringenin can be either beneficial or adverse depending on the physiological status of the consumers.
  • 8
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Health Effects of Coumestrol
Coumestrol is a phytoestrogen produced in pulses including alfalfa, clover or soy. Its production is mainly associated to fungal attacks. It has been involved in the ewes' infertility syndrome discovered in the late 1940s in Australia and New-Zealand. Mainly considered as a toxic compound, it can be used to relief symptoms of estrogen deficiencies and therefore exhibits both adverse and beneficial effects at least in animal models.
  • 9
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Health Effects of Resorcylic Acid Lactones
Zearalenol and zearalenone are two resorcylic acid lactones known for their potent estrogenic effects. They are considered as toxic compounds from the mycotoxin category and are mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. Their estrogenic action made them either beneficial or toxic according to the physiological situation they are tested in. Here are reported the exposure recorded in humans as well as their blood levels. Then, beneficial and adverse effects observed in vivo essentially in animal models are analysed.
  • 8
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Cassia alata (Linnaeus) Roxburgh for Skin
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflamed skin condition with relapsing pruritus and cutaneous physiological dysfunction. This skin disorder is widespread around the world and frequently affects infants, children and adults. Natural products with bioactive lead compounds are the source of natural medicines for complementary and alternative therapy in managing AD. Cassia alata (Senna alata) has been used traditionally as a remedy for a variety of health issues. Cassia alata is also known as ringworm cassia. This plant is perennial and is known as a ‘candle bush’ due to its shape and inflorescences. 
  • 7
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that comprises a complex aetiology, where a genetic component has been suggested, together with multiple environmental risk factors. Because of its increasing incidence in the paediatric population and the lack of successful curative therapies, ASD is one of the most puzzling disorders for medicine. In the last two decades and more, the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) and ASD has been recurrently documented. For this reason, the former hypothesis, according to which reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) play an important role in ASD is now a certainty. Thus, in this research, it is discussed many aspects of the role of OS in ASD. In addition, the possibility that free radicals promote lipid peroxidation, as well as an increase in other OS biomarkers are presented. Finally, the possibility of novel nutritional interventions aimed at counteracting ROS production in people with ASD is outlined. In fact, new strategies have investigated the possibility that ASD symptoms, as well behavioral anomalies may be improved after interventions using antioxidants as supplements or included in foods.
  • 12
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Hydrogels Combined with Silver Nanoparticles against Antimicrobial Resistance
The development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms has increased dramatically as a natural consequence of the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that this is one of the top ten global public health threats facing humanity today, demanding urgent multisectoral action. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles (such as silver nanoparticles) have emerged as promising alternatives due to their outstanding antibacterial and antibiofilm properties. The efficient delivery of the nanoparticles (NPs) is also a matter of concern, and studies have demonstrated that hydrogels present an excellent ability to perform this task.
  • 57
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Infections in Acute Care Surgery
The burden of infections in acute care surgery (ACS) is huge. Surgical emergencies alone account for three million admissions per year in the United States (US) with estimated financial costs of USD 28 billion per year. Acute care facilities and ACS patients represent boost sanctuaries for the emergence, development and transmission of infections and multi-resistant organisms.
  • 9
  • 02 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Melatonin as a Repurposed Drug for Melanoma Treatment
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a greater risk of metastasis and a higher prevalence and mortality rate. This cancer type has been demonstrated to develop resistance to the known treatment options such as conventional therapeutic agents and targeted therapy that are being used as the standard of care. Drug repurposing has been explored as a potential alternative treatment strategy against disease pathophysiologies, including melanoma. To that end, multiple studies have suggested that melatonin produced by the pineal gland possesses anti-proliferative and oncostatic effects in experimental melanoma models. The anticarcinogenic activity of melatonin is attributed to its ability to target a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways which are involved in regulating the behavior of cancer cells, including cell survival and proliferation. Additionally, preclinical studies have demonstrated that melatonin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents exerts synergistic effects against melanoma. 
  • 13
  • 02 Feb 2023
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