Topic Review
Interactions between Non-Hematological and Multiple Myeloma Cells
Tumors are composed of a plethora of extracellular matrix, tumor and non-tumor cells that form a tumor microenvironment (TME) that nurtures the tumor cells and creates a favorable environment where tumor cells grow and proliferate. In multiple myeloma (MM), the TME is the bone marrow (BM). Non-tumor cells can belong either to the non-hematological compartment that secretes soluble mediators to create a favorable environment for MM cells to grow, or to the immune cell compartment that perform an anti-MM activity in healthy conditions. Indeed, marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) are associated with a good prognosis in MM patients and have served as the basis for developing different immunotherapy strategies. However, MM cells and other cells in the BM can polarize their phenotype and activity, creating an immunosuppressive environment where immune cells do not perform their cytotoxic activity properly, promoting tumor progression.
  • 1
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Histopathology of Cervical HPV Lesions
Only after fully understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of HPV lesions and their interaction with different cofactors such as the microbiota will it be possible to define the most effective strategy for patients. The Pathologist and the HPV test allows identifying women with “high risk” to be included in personalized protocols and targeted follow-up in cynical practice.
  • 9
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a protein degradation mechanism through lysosomes. By targeting the KFERQ motif of the substrate, CMA is responsible for the degradation of about 30% of cytosolic proteins, including a series of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). The fact that decreased activity of CMA is observed in NDs, and ND-associated mutant proteins, including alpha-synuclein and Tau, directly impair CMA activity reveals a possible vicious cycle of CMA impairment and pathogenic protein accumulation in ND development. Given the intrinsic connection between CMA dysfunction and ND, enhancement of CMA has been regarded as a strategy to counteract ND. Indeed, genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate CMA have been shown to promote the degradation of ND-associated proteins and alleviate ND phenotypes in multiple ND models.
  • 38
  • 01 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Diet in Stem and Cancer Stem Cells
Diet and lifestyle factors greatly affect health and susceptibility to diseases, including cancer. Stem cells’ functions, including their ability to divide asymmetrically, set the rules for tissue homeostasis, contribute to health maintenance, and represent the entry point of cancer occurrence. Stem cell properties result from the complex integration of intrinsic, extrinsic, and systemic factors. In this context, diet-induced metabolic changes can have a profound impact on stem cell fate determination, lineage specification and differentiation.
  • 63
  • 01 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Antioxidant Therapy in Cancer
Cancer is characterized by increased oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. Enhanced ROS accumulation, as a result of metabolic disturbances and signaling aberrations, can promote carcinogenesis and malignant progression by inducing gene mutations and activating pro-oncogenic signaling, providing a possible rationale for targeting oxidative stress in cancer treatment.
  • 97
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Early Gene c-fos and Glial Cells
The c-fos gene was first described as a proto-oncogene responsible for the induction of bone tumors. A few decades ago, activation of the protein product c-fos was reported in the brain after seizures and other noxious stimuli. Since then, multiple studies have used c-fos as a brain activity marker. Although it has been attributed to neurons, growing evidence demonstrates that c-fos expression in the brain may also include glial cells. Unlike neurons, whose expression changes used to be associated with depolarization, glial cells seem to express the c-fos proto-oncogene under the influence of proliferation, differentiation, growth, inflammation, repair, damage, plasticity, and other conditions. This glial cell may provide additional information related to the brain microenvironment that is difficult to obtain from the isolated neuron paradigm. Thus, detection techniques are improved in order to better differentiate the phenotypes expressing c-fos in the brain and to elucidate the specific roles of c-fos expression in glial cells.
  • 19
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Control of Protein Synthesis by ERdj1, ERdj2, ERdj6
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells is the central organelle for the maturation and folding of transmembrane proteins and for proteins destined to be secreted into the extracellular space. The proper folding of target proteins is achieved and supervised by a complex endogenous chaperone machinery. BiP, a member of the Hsp70 protein family, is the central chaperone in the ER. The chaperoning activity of BiP is assisted by ER-resident DnaJ (ERdj) proteins due to their ability to stimulate the low, intrinsic ATPase activity of BiP. Besides their co-chaperoning activity, ERdj proteins also regulate and tightly control the translation, translocation, and degradation of proteins. Three ERdj co-chaperones, ERdj1, ERdj2, and ERdj6, are functionally involved in the control of translation and translocation of ER target proteins. 
  • 59
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Melanoma and The Ubiquitin Pathway
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role in various cellular biological activities and participates in cancer pathogenesis, including melanoma. 
  • 127
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
MicroRNAs in Dystrophinopathy
Dystrophinopathies are a group of X-linked inheritance disorders characterized by loss of limbs, loss of respiratory and cardiac muscle strength, and destruction of nerve tissue. There are two main forms of dystrophinopathy: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which develops in early childhood and presents with severe symptoms, and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), which develops late as a milder form.
  • 26
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Secretory Immunoglobulin A Immunity in COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) are distinct respiratory diseases that share features such as the obstruction of small airways and disease flare-ups that are called exacerbations and are often caused by infections. Along the airway epithelium, immunoglobulin (Ig) A contributes to first line mucosal protection against inhaled particles and pathogens. Dimeric IgA produced by mucosal plasma cells is transported towards the apical pole of airway epithelial cells by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), where it is released as secretory IgA. Secretory IgA mediates immune exclusion and promotes the clearance of pathogens from the airway surface by inhibiting their adherence to the epithelium. 
  • 76
  • 27 Jul 2022
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