Topic Review
Alveolar Regeneration in COVID-19 Patients: Network Perspective
Lung alveolar regeneration to repair the damaged tissue and restoration of normal tissue function could be achieved by transplantation of progenitor or stem cells and exosome-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents, including miRNAs. Not only as a biomarker of COVID-19but also as therapeutic agents, miRNAs have proven to play a crucial role in lung damage and repair. miRNAs can either be regulated locally in the lungsor transported to the damaged site by extracellular vehicles (EVs) secreted by stem cells to induce tissue regeneration by decreasing inflammation and apoptosis, stimulating surfactant production, regulating gene expression of junction proteins to repair microvascular permeability, and reducing fibrosis.
  • 175
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Angiogenic Potential in Biological Hydrogels
Hydrogels are three-dimensional (3D) materials able to absorb and retain water in large amounts while maintaining their structural stability. Due to their considerable biocompatibility and similarity with the body’s tissues, hydrogels are one of the most promising groups of biomaterials. The main application of these hydrogels is in regenerative medicine, in which they allow the formation of an environment suitable for cell differentiation and growth. (Draft for definition)
  • 364
  • 21 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2-Based Biosensing Modalities
Rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a critical and valuable weapon for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response. SARS-CoV-2 invasion is primarily mediated by human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Recent developments in ACE2-based SARS-CoV-2 detection modalities accentuate the potential of this natural host-virus interaction for developing point-of-care (POC) COVID-19 diagnostic systems.
  • 31
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Antarctic Marine Fungi
Despite the harsh conditions, fungi are ubiquitously present in Antarctic ecosystems. The key to fungal success can be due to the vast array of specialized molecules, which allowed their colonization in almost every habitat of our Planet. In Antarctic marine environments, the fungal specific adaptions to low temperatures lead to the production of structurally novel enzymes and secondary metabolites that provide competitive advantages over other microorganisms. The bioprospecting of Antarctic fungi for new bioactive compounds and enzymes is important not only for elucidating their ecological role but also useful for developing blue biotechnologies. 
  • 508
  • 01 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Anthocyanins and Vibrant Color Pigments
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, and they are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables as glycosides, having different sugars, such as glucose, rhamnose, xylose or arabinose, attached to an aglycon nucleus. Till now have been shown to have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo.  This work aim to provide an up-to-date overview regarding anthocyanins as functional molecules and their chemopreventive effects on melanoma in vitro and in vivo as well as a comprehensive description of major sources of anthocyanins. Until today, numerous studies evaluated the topic of anthocyanins and various types of cancer, regarding the anthocyanins’ preventative and inhibitory effects, underlying molecular mechanisms, and such. However, there is no targeted review available regarding the anticarcinogenic effects of dietary anthocyanins on skin cancers. If diagnosed at the early stages, the survival rate of skin cancer is quite high. Nevertheless, the metastatic form has a short prognosis. In fact, the incidence of melanoma skin cancer, the type with high mortality, has increased exponentially over the last 30 years, causing the majority of skin cancer deaths. Malignant melanoma is considered a highly destructive type of skin cancer due to its particular capacity to grow and spread faster than any other type of cancers. Plants, in general, have been used in disease treatment for a long time, and medicinal plants are commonly a part of anticancer drugs on the market.
  • 930
  • 23 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Antibacterial Peptides and Their Mechanism of Action
Despite the great strides in healthcare during the last century, some challenges still remained unanswered. The development of multi-drug resistant bacteria, the alarming growth of fungal infections, the emerging/re-emerging of viral diseases are yet a worldwide threat. Since the discovery of natural antimicrobial peptides able to broadly hit several pathogens, peptide-based therapeutics have been under the lenses of the researchers. Antimicrobial peptides generally affect highly preserved structures, e.g., the phospholipid membrane via pore formation or other constitutive targets like peptidoglycans in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and glucan in the fungal cell wall. Additionally, some peptides are particularly active on biofilm destabilizing the microbial communities. They can also act intracellularly, e.g., on protein biosynthesis or DNA replication. Their intracellular properties are extended upon viral infection since peptides can influence several steps along the virus life cycle starting from viral receptor-cell interaction to the budding. Besides their mode of action, improvements in manufacturing to increase their half-life and performances are also taken into consideration together with advantages and impairments in the clinical usage. Thus far, the progress of new synthetic peptide-based approaches is making them a promising tool to counteract emerging infections.
  • 141
  • 08 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Antibiofilm Therapeutics Strategies to Overcome Antimicrobial Drug Resistance
Biofilms embrace the capability to resist and survive harsh environmental conditions and defeat the host immune system, so there is a desire for exploring new antibiofilm agents. Antibiofilm agents that can abet the process of dismantling the biofilm has provided research strategies for designing new biofilm dispersal inducers.
  • 155
  • 10 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Antibodies induced by Glycosphingolipids
Glycosphingolipids containing very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) regulate several immune responses, such as cytokine production, immune signaling, and antibody induction. Here, we report that immunization with glycosphingolipids containing-VLCFAs can efficiently induce the production of anti-glycan antibodies by B cells.
  • 306
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Anticancer Secondary Metabolites of Astragalus Species
Some of the most effective anticancer compounds are still derived from plants since the chemical synthesis of chiral molecules is not economically efficient. Rapid discovery of lead compounds with pronounced biological activity is essential for the successful development of novel drug candidates. The genus Astragalus L. is the largest in the family Fabaceae (syn. Leguminosae), with more than 3500 species. Astragalus, excluding Astracantha (formerly Astragalus subgenus Tragacantha), has a world total of ca. 2500 species, of which ca. 500 are in the Americas. Many of the species have conservation status “vulnerable” or “critically endangered”.
  • 128
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Anticyanobacterial Modes and Mechanisms against Microcystis aeruginosa
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have attracted great attention around the world due to the numerous negative effects such as algal organic matters and cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatments. Among the blooming cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and widespread species. As an economic and environmentally friendly technology, microorganisms have been widely used for pollution control and remediation, especially in the inhibition/biodegradation of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in eutrophic water; moreover, some certain anticyanobacterial microorganisms can degrade microcystins at the same time.
  • 104
  • 20 Jun 2022
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