Topic Review
The effect of elastase and its inhibition by sivelestat in equine endometrosis
Metallopeptidases (MMP-2 and -9) are enzymes involved in ECM remodeling. The modulation of elastase-induced deleterious effect on ECM and MMPs could be important for the prevention of fibrosis development. The selective inhibitor sivelestat is known to inhibit elastase activity.
  • 279
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
The Chicken MHC
The chicken immune system has provided an immense contribution to basic immunology knowledge by establishing major landmarks and discoveries that defined concepts widely used today. One of many special features on chickens is the presence of a compact and simple major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Despite its simplicity, the chicken MHC maintains the essential counterpart genes of the mammalian MHC, allowing for a strong association to be detected between the MHC and resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases. This association has been widely studied for several poultry infectious diseases, including infectious bronchitis. In addition to the MHC and its linked genes, other non-MHC loci may play a role in the mechanisms underlying such resistance. It has been reported that innate immune responses, such as macrophage function and inflammation, might be some of the factors driving resistance or susceptibility, consequently influencing the disease outcome in an individual or a population. Information about innate immunity and genetic resistance can be helpful in developing effective preventative measures for diseases such as infectious bronchitis, to which a systemic antibody response is often not associated with disease protection.
  • 269
  • 19 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Taxonomy of Chagas Disease Vectors
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted mainly by members of the subfamily Triatominae.
  • 126
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Tanzania Peste des Petits Ruminants
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important transboundary animal disease of domestic small ruminants, camels, and wild artiodactyls. The disease has significant socio-economic impact on communities that depend on livestock for their livelihood and is a threat to endangered susceptible wild species. 
  • 207
  • 22 Jun 2021
Topic Review
There are diverse challenges in the poultry production industry that decrease the productivity and efficiency of poultry production, impair animal welfare, and pose issues to public health. Furthermore, the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in feed, which have been used to improve the growth performance and gut health of chickens, has been restricted in many countries. Tannins, polyphenolic compounds that precipitate proteins, are considered as alternatives for AGP in feed and provide solutions to mitigate challenges in poultry production due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gut health promoting effects. However, because high dosages of tannins have antinutritional effects when fed to poultry, determining appropriate dosages of supplemental tannins is critical for their potential implementation as a solution for the challenges faced in poultry production.
  • 328
  • 11 Jan 2021
Topic Review
State-of-the-Art Vaccine for Aquaculture Use
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites are the major causes of mortality and economic losses in commercial aquaculture. Some pathologies, especially those of bacterial origin, can be treated with commercially available drugs, while others are poorly managed. In fact, despite having been recognized as a useful preventive measure, no effective vaccination against many economically relevant diseases exist yet, such as for viral and parasitic infections.
  • 200
  • 01 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol
The storage of frozen sperm samples from birds in Germoplasm Banks could be a way out for the conservation of thousands of threatened species. The cryopreserved samples could be later used in reintroduction projects. This technology also allows for the selection of individuals of genetic interest and the exchange of samples between distant locations. Although the sperm cryopreservation is greatly developed in domestic species, in birds it is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was optimize the cryopreservation protocol in a bird of prey, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) which could be used as a model for other threats. Thus, the freezing/thawing protocol and the type and concentration of cryoprotectant were evaluated.
  • 275
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Soybean Molasses in Animal Nutrition
Soybean molasses is a by-product of the soybean processing industry that is accumulated in large quantities and usually disposed of like liquid manure or in landfills, thus causing severe ecological problems. At the same time, soybean molasses has a promising potential to be included regularly in animal diets because of its high nutritive value and functional properties. It is rich in sugars and is a cheap energy source for animals compared to other energy-rich feed ingredients. 
  • 484
  • 25 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Southern African Lion
The Southern African lion is a Panthera leo melanochaita population in Southern Africa. During the 20th century, lion populations in this part of Africa became fragmented and declined in several range countries due to loss of habitat and prey base, poaching and killing of lions to protect livestock and human life. In 2005, a Lion Conservation Strategy was developed for Southern and East Africa. Today, lion populations are stable only in large protected area complexes. In intensively managed protected areas in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, they increased since the turn of this century. The scientific name P. l. melanochaita was proposed for the Cape lion in 1842 that was eradicated in the mid-19th century. P. l. melanochaita differs genetically from P. leo leo; the two subspecies probably diverged at least 50,000 years ago.
  • 35
  • 18 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Soiling of Pig Pens
The soiling of pig pens has important implications for animal welfare, health, workload, and environmental emissions of pig farming. This excerpt provides an overview of the historical reasons behind current production systems, of pen soiling prevalence and its importance. Possible strategies and specific suggestions on how to address pen soiling in current systems are described, based on an extensive review on pigs’ normal eliminatory behaviour.
  • 459
  • 16 Nov 2020
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