Topic Review
Detection and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
Latest weeks the humanity is faced with the spread of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 that causes a respiratory illness with high mortality rates, COVID-19. Since there is no approved treatment or vaccination against that specific coronavirus the reduce in virus spread is essential. That is based in the use of appropriate tools, enabling the accurate and early detection. Molecular biology and immunological techniques are widely used in order to predict the COVID-19 cases in a very short period of time. These are commonly based either in identification of the SARS-CoV-2’s genetic material or in detection of antibodies that have been produced by the immune system against the virus. Many of the above mentioned tests have been validated and approved by local authorities. However, there are much more companies that provide detection tests, without basic validation processes, contributing in non-precise data. The present review aim to analyze the most common platforms that are used in COVID-19 detection, analyzing their advantages and weaknesses. Therefore, each physician will be equipped with appropriate information required for each test.
  • 1651
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Nonparametric Limits of Agreement
The assessment of agreement in method comparison and observer variability analysis of quantitative measurements is usually done by the Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement, where the paired differences are implicitly assumed to follow a normal distribution. Whenever this assumption does not hold, the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles are obtained by quantile estimation. In the literature, empirical quantiles have been used for this purpose. In this simulation study, we applied both sample, subsampling, and kernel quantile estimators as well as other methods for quantile estimation to sample sizes between 30 and 150 and different distributions of the paired differences. The performance of 15 estimators in generating prediction intervals was measured by their respective coverage probability for one newly generated observation. Our results indicated that sample quantile estimators based on one or two order statistics outperformed all the other estimators and can be used for deriving nonparametric Limits of Agreement. For sample sizes exceeding 80 observations, more advanced quantile estimators, such as the Harrell-Davis and estimators of Sfakianakis-Verginis type, which use all the observed differences, performed likewise well, but may be considered intuitively more appealing than simple sample quantile estimators that are based on only two observations per quantile.
  • 1035
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM)
The Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) is innovative as most behavioral theories only model single activity. The CCAM, however, models different single activities—such as physical activity and nutrition —and how they change as a result of one another. Such lifestyle activities are assumed to be formed by higher-level goals, which can drive activity volitionally or unconsciously, and are rather unspecific. They become specific because of activities that are subjectively seen as leading to this goal. Each activity must be intended, pursued, and controlled. Specific resources ensure that individuals have the chance to translate their intentions into activity and that they resist distractors. Compensation and transfer (also called carry-over) operate between the different activities. If people devote all of their energy to one domain and believe that no resources remain for the other activity, compensation can help to attain goals. It is also possible that an individual successfully performs one activity, and existing or developing resources may be transferred to another activity.
  • 790
  • 16 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Artemisia- Antiviral and Immunomodulation Effects
Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
  • 658
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Wearable Devices for Stroke Prediction
Stroke ranks as one of the top first leading causes of death and disability worldwide, particularly for the most populous countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. The emerging wearable devices intended to monitor the physiological parameters, and the growth of machine learning applied to predict diseases, are promising solutions to prevent stroke and eventually predict stroke risk.
  • 607
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Benzodiazepines
The Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are a group of components that receive their name because in their chemical structure have a benzene ring joined to other seven-members heterocyclic ring called Diazepine.
  • 566
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Whey Proteins
Whey proteins have implications in different fields related to human life quality. The aim of this overview was to present the basic chemistry of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and lactotransferrin - main proteins of bovine whey. 
  • 516
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Drone Brood
Drone brood homogenate (known as apilarnil or less apistimul) is a bee product obtained by the collection of drone (male honeybees)  larvae from drone cells of honey comb, from 3 to 11 days after hatching. Apilarnil, which may be defined as the male equivalent of royal jelly, is obtained from drone brood and then freeze-dried. Etymologically, the term originates from “api” for bee, “lar” for larvae, and “nil” as a shortened form of its discoverer’s name - Romanian apitherapist Nicholae Iliesiu. 
  • 515
  • 17 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Support Needs in Intellectual Disability
“Support needs” is a psychological construct referring to the pattern and intensity of supports necessary for a person to participate in activities linked with normative human functioning.
  • 495
  • 11 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Stonefish: venom components, pathology, distribution
There are five species of stonefish within the genus Synanceia: Synanceia horrida (previously referred to as S. trachynis), S. verrucosa, S. alula, S. nana and S. platyrhyncha. Synanceia spp. can grow 35–50 cm in length and have evolved grey and mottled skin to camouflage themselves amongst encrusted rocks and coral for predation and defense. Synanceia species have up to 15 dorsal fin spines that are erected when the fish is disturbed. Stings from this medically important group of fish are known to cause painful and lethal human envenomations. Stonefish are regarded as one of the most venomous fish in the world. Research on stonefish venom has chiefly focused on the in vitro and in vivo neurological, cardiovascular, cytotoxic and nociceptive effects of the venom.
  • 418
  • 17 Jun 2021
  • Page
  • of
  • 86
Top