Topic Review
Audiovestibular Disorders after COVID-19 Vaccine
The SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign is probably one of the most historic public hygiene measures in modern medicine. The drama of the pandemic has forced the scientific community to accelerate the development and commercialization of vaccines, thereby enhancing the phases of active surveillance. Among the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported, those of an audiovestibular interest, such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo, constitute a very small percentage.
  • 170
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Autologous Fat Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Palsy
Unilateral vocal palsy (UVFP) affects the voice and swallowing function and could be treated by various materials to achieve improved mucosal wave and better closure during phonation. Injection laryngoplasty is considered an exemplary method for these patients and could be injected as early as possible. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for the subjective and objective outcomes of autologous fat injection laryngoplasty (AFIL) and assessed the effects for patients with UVFP. 
  • 158
  • 08 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction
Patients with dysfunction of both vestibular systems of the inner ear experience postural instability and gait disturbances.  This condition is called Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction (BVD). 
  • 146
  • 11 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Circulating Tumor DNA in Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancer remains a challenging and deadly disease as it is often identified in more advanced stages due to limitations in screening and surveillance. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to improve outcomes by enhancing screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance in head and neck cancer patients.
  • 86
  • 14 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Clinical Application of Botulinum Toxin in Laryngeal Dystonia
Laryngeal dystonia (LD), or spasmodic dysphonia (SD), is a chronic, task-specific, focal movement disorder affecting the larynx. It interferes primarily with the essential functions of phonation and speech. LD affects patients’ ability to communicate effectively and significantly diminishes their quality of life. Botulinum neurotoxin was first used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of LD four decades ago and remains the standard of care for the treatment of LD. 
  • 7
  • 08 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Clinical Use of the Suppression Head Impulse Paradigm
he instrumental assessment of the vestibular system has made significant progress. Two protocol tests are available in the clinical practice to evaluate the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) function through the use of the video head impulse test (vHIT): the head impulse paradigm (HIMP) and the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP). These tests can be used alone (in the case of HIMP) or in combination to test semicircular canal function and to determine the residual VOR gain and the visuo-vestibular interaction. The suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) has a potential clinical application in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. The SHIMP could be a useful tool to diagnose a VOR alteration in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. Further well-designed studies are needed to evaluate if the new paradigm could replace the HIMP in both the acute and chronic phases of vestibulopathy.
  • 81
  • 11 Jul 2022
Topic Review
CO2 Laser Transoral Laryngeal Microsurgery
CO2 laser transoral laryngeal microsurgery (TLM) is the preferred option for the majority of small–medium size glottic and supraglottic cancers and may also be used for bigger tumors, especially in older patients.
  • 111
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Cochlear Implantation
Cochlear implants (CIs) are prostheses that electrically stimulate the cochlear nerve to restore not only sound perception, but speech understanding in people with profound sensorineural hearing loss. CIs use a battery-powered sound processor worn at ear level to transmit electrical signals to an electrode array that has been surgically implanted in the inner ear. The first generation of implants was approved by the FDA in 1984. These devices used a single electrode that allowed recipients to perceive the presence or absence of sound, while variably restoring some speech understanding. The FDA approved the first multi-channel implants for adults and children in 1987 and 1990, respectively. Patients who undergo implantation today do so under a growing number of indications and use devices with a tonotopic array of as many as 24 electrodes. These modern CIs promote language acquisition, literacy, and academic performance in pre-lingually deaf children, while restoring meaningful speech recognition and generating better quality-of-life outcomes for adults who are unable to use traditional amplification.
  • 102
  • 19 May 2022
Topic Review
Diagnosis of Reflux and Place of pH Study
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory condition of the upper aerodigestive tract tissues related to direct and indirect effect of gastroduodenal content reflux, which induces morphological changes in the upper aerodigestive tract. The demonstration of pharyngeal reflux events through pH study is an important step in the management of LPR because this is the most effective approach to objective the back flow of gastric content into the pharynx.
  • 214
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Diagnostic Approaches for Epstein–Barr Virus
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of many diseases including infectious mononucleosis (IM), and it is associated with different subtypes of lymphoma, sarcoma and carcinoma such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma. With the advent of improved laboratory tests for EBV, a timelier and accurate diagnosis could be made to aid better prognosis and effective treatment. For histopathological lesions, the in situ hybridization (ISH) of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in biopsy tissues remains the gold standard for detecting EBV.
  • 110
  • 23 Mar 2022
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