Topic Review
Nasolabial Angle in Orthodontic Diagnosis
The nasolabial angle (NLA) is one of the key factors to be studied in an orthodontic diagnosis for the aesthetics of the nose and facial profile.
  • 1767
  • 06 Feb 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Dual-Modular Stems for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty
In primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), dual-modular stems were introduced to better restore hip stability, femoral offset, and leg length. This entry highlights the gathered knowledge about dual-modular stems and related complications in combinations with titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) exchangeable necks. The reasons for a modular neck failure are multifactorial. Some of the dual-modular stems are still on the market despite the fact th these designs have neither been proven for durability nor have shown any clinical benefits for the patients as compared to monolithic stems. Apart from very limited indications, orthopaedic surgeons should not use dual-modular stem designs for primary THA. 
  • 398
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Interleukins
Interleukins (ILs) regulate differentiation and function of bone cells, with several ILs being reported to act pro-osteoclastogenic. 
  • 157
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Pluripotent Stem Cell
Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) such as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced PSCs (iPSC) are originated from embryos and induced from adult tissue cells, respectively. PSCs are capable of proliferating almost indefinitely, and differentiating into all somatic cells, through processes that mimic early embryogenesis. The resulting cells tend to carry embryonic characteristics.
  • 126
  • 11 Oct 2021
Topic Review
MDM2 Amplified Sarcomas
Murine Double Minute Clone 2, located at 12q15, is an oncogene that codes for an oncoprotein of which the association with p53 was discovered 30 years ago. The most important function of MDM2 is to control p53 activity. The sarcomas that typically have an amplification of MDM2.
  • 113
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Therapy of the Rheumatic Knee
In rheumatoid arthritis, the joints of the lower extremities are almost always affected. This is most conspicuous in the knee joint. In rheumatics, inflammatory osteoarthritis manifests itself comparably earlier than in patients with osteoarthritis. The focus of attention was primarily on the synovia with its destruction process and secondary changes. Now, driven by experimental research, dendritic cells and fibroblasts and molecular features are moving into the clinician’s field of vision. Even in joints that appear to be in remission with no swelling or pain, the activity of these cells leads to changes in the capsule-ligaments. The complex deformities and instabilities caused by this, in conjunction with atrophy of the inter-articular musculature, have an impact on the activities of daily life (ADL). If these biomechanical aspects of the knee joint are not taken into account early on in therapy, the frequency of primary and secondary surgical treatment increases. The timely recognition of biomechanical pathologies and consistent treatment can contribute to improving the patient situation in addition to adequate medication therapy. 
  • 98
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Bone Tissues
Osseous tissue is a kind of hard connective tissue, which is also composed of cells, fibers and matrix. The fibers are bone glue fibers (the same as collagen fibers), and the matrix contains a large amount of solid inorganic salts.
  • 92
  • 13 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Achilles Tendinopathy Management
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a clinical condition characterized by persistent tendon pain and swelling related to mechanical loading of the Achilles tendon. AT, along with plantar fasciitis and stress fractures, are the injuries that most frequently involve the foot, furthermore AT is one of the most common tendinopathies of the lower limb .
  • 88
  • 21 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Complications of Dual Modular Stems
Titanium (Ti) alloys have been proven to be one of the most suitable materials for orthopaedic implants. Dual modular stems have been introduced to primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) to enable better control of the femoral offset, leg length, and hip stability. However, this recent innovation in the femoral stem design has proven itself to be an innovation trap actually. 
  • 88
  • 10 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Foot/Ankle Prostheses Design Approach
There are different alternatives when selecting removable prostheses for below the knee amputated patients. The designs of these prostheses vary according to their different functions. These prostheses designs can be classified into Energy Storing and Return (ESAR), Controlled Energy Storing and Return (CESR), active, and hybrid. This paper aims to identify the state of the art related to the design of these prostheses of which ESAR prostheses are grouped into five types, and active and CESR are categorized into four groups. Regarding patent analysis, 324 were analyzed over the last six years.
  • 86
  • 29 Jun 2021
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