Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC.
24 Mar 2022
Tissue Senescence Reversing Techniques Modalities
Senescent cells and fibrosis are important components that impact the regenerative capacity of skin, particularly when considering chronic non-healing wounds. Anoderm and perianal fistulas in the setting of Crohn’s disease are clinically pathophysiological extremes with consequently different healing processes which impact treatment modalities.
27 Feb 2023
Thrombin-Gelatin Matrix in Breast Tumor Hemostasis
Improved hemostasis during acute bleeding and a trend to prevent hematoma were observed after the TGM injection. TGM could be an alternative method to achieve better post-VABB hemostasis.
02 Mar 2022
The Rationale of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Treatment
Peritoneal metastases (PM) are observed in approximately 8% of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, either synchronously or metachronously during follow-up. PM often manifests as the sole site of metastasis. PM is associated with a poor prognosis and typically shows resistance to systemic chemotherapy. Consequently, there has been a search for alternative treatment strategies. For intraperitoneal (IP) therapy to exhibit promise, it either needed to be combined with the removal of larger tumor nodules during cytoreductive surgery or administered as repeated intermittent treatments over an extended duration to affect macroscopic tumor nodules. Cytoreductive surgery, with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment as an adjunct, emerged as a solution for the former situation.
31 Jan 2024
The Lymphatic System
Lymphedema is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of protein-rich fluid within the interstitium, resulting in swelling of the affected area. It can manifest as primary lymphedema when it results from a structural or developmental defect in the lymphatic system, or as secondary lymphedema, which is due to iatrogenic causes.
04 Sep 2023
The History of Blood Vessel Anastomosis
Surgical technique and technology frequently coevolve. The brief history of blood vessel anastomosis is full of famous names. While the techniques pioneered by these surgeons have been well described, the technology that facilitated their advancements and their inventors deserve recognition. The mass production of laboratory microscopes in the mid-1800s allowed for an explosion of interest in tissue histology. This improved understanding of vascular physiology and thrombosis laid the groundwork for Carrel and Guthrie to report some of the first successful vascular anastomoses. In 1916, McLean discovered heparin. Twenty-four years later, Gordon Murray found that it could prevent thrombosis when performing end-to-end anastomosis. These discoveries paved the way for the first-in-human kidney transplantations. Otolaryngologists Nylen and Holmgren were the first to bring the laboratory microscope into the operating room, but Jacobson was the first to apply these techniques to microvascular anastomosis. His first successful attempt in 1960 and the subsequent development of microsurgical tools allowed for an explosion of interest in microsurgery, and several decades of innovation followed.
15 Mar 2022
The Challenge of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (pCCA) are rare yet aggressive tumors originating from the bile ducts. While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, only a minority of patients are amenable to curative resection, and the prognosis of unresectable patients is dismal. The introduction of liver transplantation (LT) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for unresectable pCCA in 1993 represented a major breakthrough, and it has been associated with 5-year survival rates consistently >50%. Despite these encouraging results, pCCA has remained a niche indication for LT, which is most likely due to the need for stringent candidate selection and the challenges in preoperative and surgical management.
27 Mar 2023
The Bone Regeneration
Bone regeneration is a complex process that is influenced by tissue interactions, inflammatory responses, and progenitor cells.
13 May 2021
The Association of Gut Microbiota in Gastrointestinal-Cancer Therapies
The gut microbiome of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoes specific changes during different therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Likewise, complications of these therapies are associated with specific changes in the microbiome.
02 Nov 2021
Textured Surface Implants and BIA-ALCL
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) associated with textured-surface silicone breast implants. Since first being described in 1997, over 1100 cases have been reported worldwide. A causal relationship between BIA-ALCL and textured implants has been established in epidemiological studies.
23 Feb 2023
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
Encyclopedia of Fungi
Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
Encyclopedia of Digital Society, Industry 5.0 and Smart City
Log in/Sign up
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)