Topic Review
2-Hydroxybutyric Acid for Insulin Resistance
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D), commonly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is responsible for up to 95% of diabetic cases worldwide. It is defined as a chronic condition characterized by the loss and/or dysfunction of β-cells and insulin resistance (IR) in effector tissues, which is immediately recognized by an increase in glucose levels in the bloodstream, i.e., hyperglycemia.
  • 208
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
3D Printing in Complex Medical Procedures
Medicine is a rapidly-evolving discipline, with progress picking up pace with each passing decade. This constant evolution results in the introduction of new tools and methods, which in turn occasionally leads to paradigm shifts across the affected medical fields. The following review attempts to showcase how 3D printing has begun to reshape and improve processes across various medical specialties and where it has the potential to make a significant impact. 
  • 110
  • 18 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D-Bioprinting for Chronic Wound
Skin substitutes can provide a temporary or permanent treatment option for chronic wounds. The selection of skin substitutes depends on several factors, including the type of wound and its severity. Full-thickness skin grafts (SGs) require a well-vascularised bed and sometimes will lead to contraction and scarring formation. Besides, donor sites for full-thickness skin grafts are very limited if the wound area is big, and it has been proven to have the lowest survival rate compared to thick- and thin-split thickness. Tissue engineering technology has introduced new advanced strategies since the last decades to fabricate the composite scaffold via the 3D-bioprinting approach as a tissue replacement strategy. Considering the current global donor shortage for autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG), skin 3D-bioprinting has emerged as a potential alternative to replace the ASSG treatment. The three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting technique yields scaffold fabrication with the combination of biomaterials and cells to form bioinks. 
  • 230
  • 08 Jan 2022
Topic Review
A New Role of Acute Phase Proteins
The prevailing general view of acute-phase proteins (APPs) is that they are produced by the liver in response to the stress of the body as part of a systemic acute-phase response. A coordinated, local production of these proteins upon cell stress by the stressed cells has been demonstrated. The local, stress-induced APP production has been demonstrated in different tissues (kidney, breast cancer) and with different stressors (hypoxia, fibrosis and electromagnetic heat). Thus, this local acute-phase response (APR) seems to be a universal mechanism. APP production is an ancient defense mechanism observed in nematodes and fruit flies as well. Local APP production at the tissue level is also supported by sporadic literature data for single proteins.
  • 72
  • 01 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
A Synergistic Anthropological Approach to the COVID-19 Pandemic
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic pandemic”. The term “syndemic” was originally developed by the medical anthropologist Merrill Singer in the 1990s in order to recognize the correlation between HIV/AIDS, illicit drug use, and violence in the United States. This complex interplay exacerbated the burden of the disease and the prognosis of the patient. Similarly, in COVID-19 infection, socio-economic, ethnic, and racial inequities result in higher morbidity and mortality in certain sections of society. Unfortunately, such differences are becoming too common during the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of the incidence and prevalence of the disease, as well as inequal access to new medical advances and life-saving therapeutics for those with COVID-19, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibody treatment. Lockdown measures, imposed internationally as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, are causing economic inequities, which complicate the issue even further. An appropriate syndemic anthropological approach is necessary to ensure that this pandemic does not increase health inequities in access to appropriate treatments.
  • 34
  • 23 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
This entry outlines recent preclinical and clinical advances in molecular imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with a focus on molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, developments in pharmacologic treatment of AAA targeting the ECM are reviewed and results from animal studies are contrasted with clinical trials. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often fatal disease without non-invasive pharmacologic treatment options. The ECM, with collagen type I and elastin as major components, is the key structural component of the aortic wall and is recognized as a target tissue for both initiation and the progression of AAA. Molecular imaging allows in vivo measurement and characterization of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level and sets forth to visualize molecular abnormalities at an early stage of disease, facilitating novel diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. By providing surrogate criteria for the in vivo evaluation of the effects of pharmacological therapies, molecular imaging techniques targeting the ECM may facilitate the development of pharmacological drugs. In addition, molecular targets can also be used within theranostic approaches that have the potential for timely diagnosis and simultaneous medical therapy. Recent successes in preclinical studies suggest future opportunities for clinical translation. However, further clinical studies are needed to validate the most promising molecular targets for human application.
  • 172
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Actionable Mutations Detected via ddPCR
Liquid biopsies are considered a good alternative and complementary tool for cancer management. The study of specific biomarkers by high throughput techniques could guide clinicians in the monitoring of disease evolution during the administration of targeted therapies. Although ddPCR has demonstrated its high sensitivity and specificity rates for detecting rare actionable mutations, further studies are required to implement it in all clinical laboratories for precision medicine.
  • 118
  • 02 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetes Mellitus
Persistent hyperglycemic state in type 2 diabetes mellitus leads to the initiation and progression of non-enzymatic glycation reaction with proteins and lipids and nucleic acids. Glycation reaction leads to the generation of a heterogeneous group of chemical moieties known as advanced glycated end products (AGEs), which play a central role in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The engagement of AGEs with its chief cellular receptor, RAGE, activates a myriad of signaling pathways such as MAPK/ERK, TGF-β, JNK, and NF-κB, leading to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. The downstream consequences of the AGEs/RAGE axis involve compromised insulin signaling, perturbation of metabolic homeostasis, RAGE-induced pancreatic beta cell toxicity, and epigenetic modifications. The AGEs/RAGE signaling instigated modulation of gene transcription is profoundly associated with the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
  • 78
  • 01 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Advances of MXenes
MXenes are synthesized from ‘MAX’ phases by the selective etching of ‘A’ layers. The MAX phases are conductive 2D layers of transition metal carbides/nitrides interconnected by the ‘A’ element with strong ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds.
  • 130
  • 04 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Alcohol and Head and Neck Cancer
As suggested from recent findings, the role of alcohol in HNC seems to be broader than that of a simple risk factor. In this entry, authors report evidence from past studies to clarify the role of alcohol consumption in head and neck cancer (HNC) onset. Moreover, we further explore the role of oral microbiota, oxidative stress and genetic expression alterations due to alcohol drinking. Although alcohol is not the exclusive risk factor for HNC carcinogenesis, it plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of both primary tumors and their recurrences, especially by means of ethanol and its metabolic products. Alcohol modifies oral microbiota, enhances intracellular oxidative stress, expose epithelial cells to carcinogens and alters cellular genetic expressions by promoting epigenetic mutations, DNA damage, and inaccurate DNA repair related to the formation of DNA adducts. The relationship between alcohol and HNC has been well established but, unfortunately, there is no clear threshold effect of alcohol for oncogenic patients, so that prevention and monitoring with long-term markers of alcohol consumption (especially those detected in the hair) that relay information on the actual alcohol drinking habits, seem to be the most effective ways to contrast its prevalence (and complications) in HNC drinker-patients. These conclusions seem to be especially important nowadays since, despite the established association between alcohol and HNC, a concerning pattern of alcohol consumption misconducts has been found in both in the general population and HNC  survivors. Interestingly, evidence that we report on HNC etiopathogenesis suggests a key role of polyphenols and alkylating agents for patient management, especially in case of heavy chronic drinkers.
  • 187
  • 20 Jan 2022
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