Topic Review
NNetEn Entropy
NNetEn is the first entropy measure that is based on artificial intelligence methods. The method modifies the structure of the LogNNet classification model so that the classification accuracy of the MNIST-10 digits dataset indicates the degree of complexity of a given time series. The calculation results of the proposed model are similar to those of existing methods, while the model structure is completely different and provides considerable advantages.
  • 231
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Nanoparticle Biodistribution
Cancer treatment and pharmaceutical development require targeted treatment and less toxic therapeutic intervention to achieve real progress against this disease. In this scenario, nanomedicine emerged as a reliable tool to improve drug pharmacokinetics and to translate to the clinical biologics based on large molecules. However, the ability of body to recognize foreign objects together with carrier transport heterogeneity derived from the combination of particle physical and chemical properties, payload and surface modification, make the designing of effective carriers very difficult. In this scenario, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling can help to design the particles and eventually predict their ability to reach the target and treat the tumor. This effort is performed by scientists with specific expertise and skills and familiarity with artificial intelligence tools such as advanced software that are not usually in the “cords” of traditional medical or material researchers. 
  • 120
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Post-Stroke Movement with Motion Capture and Musculoskeletal Modeling
Research of post-stroke locomotion via musculoskeletal (MSK) modeling has offered an unprecedented insight into pathological muscle function and its interplay with skeletal geometry and external stimuli. Advances in solving the dynamical system of post-stroke effort and the generic MSK models used have triggered noticeable improvements in simulating muscle activation dynamics of stroke populations.
  • 77
  • 09 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Predicting the Evolution of Syntenies
Syntenies are genomic segments of consecutive genes identified by a certain conservation in gene content and order. The notion of conservation may vary from one definition to another, the more constrained requiring identical gene contents and gene orders, while more relaxed definitions just require a certain similarity in gene content, and not necessarily in the same order. Regardless of the way they are identified, the goal is to characterize homologous genomic regions, i.e., regions deriving from a common ancestral region, reflecting a certain gene co-evolution that can enlighten important functional properties.
  • 247
  • 02 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics
Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics is a computational mesh-free Lagrangian method developed by Gingold, Monaghan, and Lucy in 1977, initially intended for use in astrophysics.
  • 460
  • 08 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Swarm Robotics
Swarm robotics is a dynamic research field that integrates two important concepts: Swarm Intelligence (SI) and Multi-Robotics System (MRS).
  • 284
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Unique Properties of the Immune System
The human body is unquestionably one of the most complex systems known to humanity. There are three main regulation systems in the human body (the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system). These three systems are integrated into one ultimate information communication network within the human body. However, each regulation system has its specific roles and unique properties. Consequently, each of these regulation systems has served as inspiration for computational models to efficiently solve real-world problems. An overview of these models and their applications is presented.
  • 15
  • 01 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Vancomycin with Muramyl Pentapeptide
Vancomycin and a native muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-alanine (MPP-D-Ala), and vancomycin and a modified muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-serine (MPP-D-Ser) form complexes in a very specific way. This complexes provide a basis for characterizing the type and stability of the connection. The type of experimentally measured and computer-simulated interactions opens the field for discussion on possible modifications to the structure of vancomycin or muramyl pentapeptide to obtain their desired characteristics.
  • 262
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
β-Adrenergic Stimulation
β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-ARS) is a physiological mechanism that regulates cardiovascular function under stress conditions or physical exercise, producing a positive inotropic (enhanced contraction), lusitropic (faster relaxation), and chronotropic (increased heart rate) effect. 
  • 547
  • 04 Aug 2021
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