Topic Review
Agrivoltaic System
Agrivoltaic systems (AVS) offer a symbiotic strategy for co-location sustainable renewable energy and agricultural production. This is particularly important in densely populated developing and developed countries, where renewable energy development is becoming more important; however, profitable farmland must be preserved. As emphasized in the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus, AVS advancements should not only focus on energy management, but also agronomic management (crop and water management). 
  • 1678
  • 05 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Physical Properties of Food Materials
The physical properties of food materials have defined those properties that can only be measured by physical means rather than chemical means. Food materials are basically naturally occurring biological-originated raw materials that have their own exclusive physical identity that makes them unique in nature. Due to the uniqueness of their physical properties, to properly measure the different physical characteristics of any food materials to get control and understand about the changes in their native physical characteristics with the influence of time-temperature-processing-treatment-exposure, proper measurement techniques for various physical properties of food materials are required with numerous desired outputs.
  • 1109
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Air pollution and Fuel Combustion
Air pollution is a precursor to many health issues such as difficulty breathing, asthma, lung and heart diseases, and cancer. 
  • 1095
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) ascribed to the family Anacardiaceae has been adjudged as the vital traditionally significant and one of the most economically important tropical fruit crop globally.
  • 735
  • 28 May 2021
Topic Review
Precision Spraying
Precision spraying, defined as the targeted spraying, obtains the target information (e.g., size, shape, structure, and canopy density, etc.) of the tree and then apply pesticides as needed. It addresses overdosing or underdosing problem by efficiently applying pesticides to the target area and substantially reducing pesticide usage while maintaining efficacy at preventing crop losses.
  • 662
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Application of Analog-to-Digital Converter in Ultrasonic Imaging System
The ADC, a bridge between the analog world and the digital world, converts the analog signals to digital so that the analog signal in the baseband can be processed by the back-end computer or microprocessor.
  • 493
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Extraction Methods for Anthocyanins
Anthocyanins are considered high added-value compounds due to their sensory qualities, colors, and nutritional properties; they are considered bioactive ingredients. They are found in high concentrations in many by-products across the food industry. At present, expensive raw materials and production technologies make the extraction of natural anthocyanins relatively expensive.
  • 484
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Permanent Magnet Machines for High-Speed Applications
High-speed electrical machines have been extensively researched in the last few decades for industrial and domestic applications, including compressors, vacuum pumps, turbine generators, machine tools, flywheel energy storages, and so on. Compared with low-speed and moderate-speed conventional electrical machines, high-speed electrical machines offer advantages such as high-power density, small size, and light weight. More importantly, high-speed electrical machines can be directly connected to high-speed loads, and conventional gear boxes are no longer needed, which avoids complex gear box systems, improves system efficiency and reliability, and reduces system vibration, noise, and cost. With the evolution in the field of power electronics converters, the problems of high frequency supplies, required for high-speed operation, is no longer a restriction. The development of high-speed electrical machines is also supported by the development of high-speed bearing systems with high robustness, fewer losses, and longer lifetime.
  • 458
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Automatic Crop Harvesting
Agriculture 4.0 is transforming farming livelihoods thanks to the development and adoption of technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things and robotics, traditionally used in other productive sectors. Soft robotics and soft grippers in particular are promising approaches to lead to new solutions in this field due to the need to meet hygiene and manipulation requirements in unstructured environments and in operation with delicate products. Soft grippers are those end-effectors that use materials and actuation methods that are soft, flexible and compliant and that enable the holding of an object to be manipulated. In this context, soft technologies can be defined as the set of theories, techniques and procedures that enable key functions of soft robotic grippers, such as actuation, gripping and shape control methods.
  • 440
  • 28 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a fruit that is rich in bioactive compounds that has a biowaste (rind and seed) with the potential to be converted into value-added products in a wide variety of applications. Recent studies have demonstrated the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of using pomegranate rind and seed as natural food additives, thus making researchers incorporate them into bioplastics and edible coatings for food packaging. Additionally, these components have shown great plasticizing effects on packaging materials while extending the shelf life of food through active packaging. Even within skin health applications, pomegranate seed oil and its bioactive compounds have been particularly effective in combating UV-induced stresses on animal skin and in-vitro models, where cells and microorganisms are separated from the whole organism. They have also aided in healing wounds and have shown major anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-bacterial properties.
  • 355
  • 12 Apr 2021
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