Topic Review
Physical Properties of Food Materials
The physical properties of food materials have defined those properties that can only be measured by physical means rather than chemical means. Food materials are basically naturally occurring biological-originated raw materials that have their own exclusive physical identity that makes them unique in nature. Due to the uniqueness of their physical properties, to properly measure the different physical characteristics of any food materials to get control and understand about the changes in their native physical characteristics with the influence of time-temperature-processing-treatment-exposure, proper measurement techniques for various physical properties of food materials are required with numerous desired outputs.
  • 3649
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Agrivoltaic System
Agrivoltaic systems (AVS) offer a symbiotic strategy for co-location sustainable renewable energy and agricultural production. This is particularly important in densely populated developing and developed countries, where renewable energy development is becoming more important; however, profitable farmland must be preserved. As emphasized in the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus, AVS advancements should not only focus on energy management, but also agronomic management (crop and water management). 
  • 3072
  • 05 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Extraction Methods for Anthocyanins
Anthocyanins are considered high added-value compounds due to their sensory qualities, colors, and nutritional properties; they are considered bioactive ingredients. They are found in high concentrations in many by-products across the food industry. At present, expensive raw materials and production technologies make the extraction of natural anthocyanins relatively expensive.
  • 2185
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Air pollution and Fuel Combustion
Air pollution is a precursor to many health issues such as difficulty breathing, asthma, lung and heart diseases, and cancer. 
  • 2090
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) ascribed to the family Anacardiaceae has been adjudged as the vital traditionally significant and one of the most economically important tropical fruit crop globally.
  • 1743
  • 28 May 2021
Topic Review
Application of Analog-to-Digital Converter in Ultrasonic Imaging System
The ADC, a bridge between the analog world and the digital world, converts the analog signals to digital so that the analog signal in the baseband can be processed by the back-end computer or microprocessor.
  • 1269
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Multilevel DC-AC Inverters (MLIs) Topologies
Achieving a soft-switching operation is a challenging task in the development of multilevel inverters for EV motor drives. Nevertheless, multilevel inverters can present several exclusive advantages that are mainly beneficial to EVs. To be exact, they can produce nearby-sinusoidal voltage waveforms with only fundamental frequency, producing smaller harmonic contents in the output current and voltage, reduced power losses, produce almost no EMI, are appropriate for high rating motor drives, and adequate for BEVs where floating DC power sources are logically obtainable. One can overcome the difficulties of the traditional two-level inverter (TLIs). Thus, the expansion of multilevel inverters for EVs can be rapidly accelerated. Multilevel AC output waveforms can be produced by MLI circuit arrangements. Multilevel DC-AC inverters topologies can be classified as classical and advanced inverters.
  • 1171
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Energy-Saving and Sustainable Building Systems
Generally, energy used in a building can be accrued in various ways and a statistical process can be used for studying the building’s overall performance and minimizing the energy requirement of the building. Different statistical models are used to interpret the real-world data in terms of individual theory to develop energy-efficient buildings. Underfloor air distribution, double-glazed windows, use of highly efficient electric motors and variable speed drives may play a great role in reducing building energy consumption. In the UK, the application of double-glazed windows in commercial buildings can save 39–53% energy. The proper maintenance of a building’s central heating system can save up to 11% energy. The automatic HVAC control system can reduce up to 20% of the building’s total heating load. Proper utilization of a VSD system in motor and building performance optimization by an ANOVA tool also proved instrumental in saving energy.
  • 1153
  • 10 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Precision Spraying
Precision spraying, defined as the targeted spraying, obtains the target information (e.g., size, shape, structure, and canopy density, etc.) of the tree and then apply pesticides as needed. It addresses overdosing or underdosing problem by efficiently applying pesticides to the target area and substantially reducing pesticide usage while maintaining efficacy at preventing crop losses.
  • 1111
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Fish Pond Water Quality
The spread of disease caused by the presence of bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi in a fish pond can cause biological pollution and reduce fish product production. Water can quickly lose its ability to support life, reproduction, waste excretion, growth, and feed the fish in fish ponds. The needs of the fish, the water quality, and factors for managing the water quality should be understood by those wishing to be successful fish farmers.
  • 1106
  • 30 Mar 2022
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