Topic Review
Using Product Design Strategies to Implement Circular Economy
The design strategies referred to industrial design, e.g., user-centered design and timeless design were preferred by professional designers. The design strategies related to routine design, i.e., materials substitution, reducing resources and energy consumption, and structural optimization, were indistinctly used by both students and professional designers.
  • 318
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Using of Glycerol in the Esterification of Rosin
Rosin is a compound that originates from pine trees. It is obtained after the volatile component (turpentine) has been distilled. Rosin is translucent and its color ranges from brilliant yellow to brown. The substance exhibits insolubility in water but is soluble in a variety of organic solvents including alcohol, ether, acetone, benzene, chloroform, turpentine, and others. Gum rosin is an important agricultural commodity which is widely used as a raw material for various industries. However, gum rosin has low stability, crystallizes easily, and tends to oxidize. This is due to carboxyl groups and conjugated double bonds in gum rosin’s structure. Therefore, to reduce these weaknesses, it is necessary to modify the rosin compound to achieve better stability via the esterification process.
  • 335
  • 23 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Use of Biofuels and (Bio)lubricants in Compression-Ignition Engines
The environmental sustainability of agricultural and industrial vehicles, as well as of the transportation sector, represents one of the most critical challenges to the sustainable development of a nation. In recent decades, compression-ignition engines have been widely used in on-road and off-road vehicles due to their better fuel economy, autonomy, compactness, and mechanical performance (spec. the high torque values). Due to the consistent environmental impact of fossil fuels, scientists are searching for alternative energy sources while preserving the beneficial features of diesel engines. The utilization of blends of diesel fuel, biodiesel, and bioethanol fuel (referred to as “ternary blends”) is among the most promising solutions for replacing fossil fuels in the near term, allowing, at the same time, us to continue using existing vehicles until new technologies are developed, consolidated and adapted to the agricultural and industrial sector. These ternary blends can lower exhaust emissions without creating major problems for existing fuel-feeding systems, typically designed for low-viscosity fossil fuels. One of the concerns in using liquid biofuels, specifically biodiesel, is the high chemical affinity with conventional and bio-based lubricants, so the main parameters of lubricants can vary significantly after a long operation of the engine. The technical challenges and the main research pathways are presented herein.
  • 137
  • 18 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Urban Greenery as a Complex System
A complex system is an open system in a state of dynamic equilibrium. It can also be described as a network connecting the various elements that constitute the system itself. The Urban Green System (UGS) is one such complex system. In this regard, its first characteristic is that it can be described as a network of green elements (areas, linear infrastructures, points) with variable rules governing the connections linked to their main functions in the urban context. Furthermore, it is an open system that exhibits dynamic relationships with all of the other components of the city.
  • 373
  • 10 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Precision Agriculture Sensing Applications
Precision agriculture (PA) is becoming highly significant in today’s technologically advanced world and has been considered as the farm for the future. This is a modern farming management concept using digital techniques to monitor and optimize agricultural production processes by using technological advancement. PA uses modern technology and principles to manage the spatial and temporal variability in all aspects of agricultural production for the goal of improving crop performance. 
  • 693
  • 01 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Forest RS
Natural, semi-natural, and planted forests are a key asset worldwide, providing a broad range of positive externalities. For sustainable forest planning and management, remote sensing (RS) platforms are rapidly going mainstream. In a framework where scientific production is growing exponentially, a systematic analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based forestry research papers is of paramount importance to understand trends, overlaps and gaps. 
  • 593
  • 09 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Understanding Cotton Irrigation Management
A change in climate as well as a decrease in water resources, calls for efficient irrigation-water management in cotton-production systems. Cotton (Gossypium sp.) is an important cash crop in many countries. However, the crop is sensitive to limited water, especially during the flowering stage and appropriate irrigation scheduling is needed depending upon location, climatic conditions, and irrigation method and regimes. Future studies on Kc, cotton water use and evapotranspiration, optimum population, the timing of irrigation termination (IT) in each location are needed for resource use efficiency.
  • 596
  • 09 Sep 2021
Topic Review
UAVs and Mobile Devices for Pasture Management
The quantification of forage availability in tropical grasses is generally done in a destructive and time-consuming manner, involving cutting, weighing, and waiting for drying. To expedite this process, non-destructive methods can be used, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with high-definition cameras, mobile device images, and the use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).
  • 271
  • 13 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Trends in Agricultural Energy System
Agricultural energy system is a typical integrated cooling, heating and power system.
  • 670
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Thermal Dilatancy and Alteration in Rock Fabric
Earthen materials such as rocks have a wide range of applications in various rock-engineering related domains, including rock slope stabilization, rock drilling, tunneling and excavation, coal gasification, nuclear waste repositories, geothermal energy extraction, construction material, and foundation engineering. Rocks are heterogeneous, anisotropic, and aggregate of different minerals. 
  • 463
  • 28 Mar 2022
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