Topic Review
Humboldt Current
The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America. It is an eastern boundary current flowing in the direction of the equator, and extends 500–1,000 km (310–620 mi) offshore. The Humboldt Current is named after the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt. In 1846, von Humboldt reported measurements of the cold-water current in his book Cosmos. The current extends from southern Chile (~45th parallel south) to northern Peru (~4th parallel south) where cold, upwelled, waters intersect warm tropical waters to form the Equatorial Front. Sea surface temperatures off the coast of Peru, around 5th parallel south, reach temperatures as low as 16 °C (61 °F). This is highly uncharacteristic of tropical waters, as most other regions have temperatures measuring above 25 °C (77 °F). Upwelling brings nutrients to the surface, which support phytoplankton and ultimately increase biological productivity. The Humboldt Current is a highly productive ecosystem. It is the most productive eastern boundary current system. It accounts for roughly 18-20% of the total worldwide marine fish catch. The species are mostly pelagic: sardines, anchovies and jack mackerel. The system's high productivity supports other important fishery resources as well as marine mammals (eared seals and cetaceans) and seabirds. Periodically, the upwelling that drives the system's productivity is disrupted by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, often with large social and economic impacts. The Humboldt has a considerable cooling influence on the climate of Chile, Peru and Ecuador. It is also largely responsible for the aridity of Atacama Desert in northern Chile and coastal areas of Peru and also of the aridity of southern Ecuador. Marine air is cooled by the current and thus is not conducive to generating precipitation (although clouds and fog are produced).
  • 5
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Waste Tire Management Practice
Montenegro faces serious challenges in terms of waste tire management. The financial and economic justification of the implementation of the first phase of the project of collection, takeover and transport, sorting, and storage of waste tires from the three municipalities in Montenegro.
  • 18
  • 05 Oct 2022
Topic Review
蓝藻对水生环境和人类健康的影响
蓝藻水华是一个全球性的水环境问题。近年来,由于全球变暖和水体富营养化,地表蓝藻在一定区域内聚集,形成受风驱动的蓝藻水华。蓝藻水华会改变水的物理和化学性质并造成污染。此外,蓝藻在凋亡过程中向水中释放有机物、N(氮)和P(磷),加速水体富营养化,威胁水生动植物群,影响水中微生物的群落结构和丰度。同时,蓝藻释放的毒素和致癌物可通过食物链/网富集,危害人类健康。 
  • 34
  • 05 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Source of Water Pollution
Water pollution is a severe health concern. Several studies have recently demonstrated the efficacy of various approaches for treating wastewater from anthropogenic activities. Wastewater treatment is an artificial procedure that removes contaminants and impurities from wastewater or sewage before discharging the effluent back into the environment. It can also be recycled by being further treated or polished to provide safe quality water for use, such as potable water.
  • 27
  • 04 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Kuroshio Current
The Kuroshio (黒潮), also known as the Black or Japan Current (日本海流, Nihon Kairyū) or the Black Stream, is a north-flowing, warm ocean current on the west side of the North Pacific Ocean. Like the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic, the Kuroshio is a powerful western boundary current and forms the western limb of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.
  • 29
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Stepwells as Sustainable Water Management Structures
Stepwells were one such effective water management technologies used in India. Stepwells were constructed based on their geographical and topographical suitability, which revealed socio-cultural behaviors and beliefs.
  • 31
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Current Technologies to Remove Organic Micropollutants from Wastewater
Micropollutants are organic and mineral contaminants, including industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and personal hygiene products, that enter the water cycle (ground and surface waters) from human activities. They are found in trace concentrations and do not completely break down, accumulating and posing a risk to the aquatic environment and water resources . Pharmaceutical residues are of environmental concern since they are found in several environmental compartments, including surface, ground and waste waters. However, the effect of pharmaceuticals on ecosystems is still under investigation. To date, the removal of these micropollutants by conventional treatment plants is generally ineffective, in addition to producing a considerable carbon footprint. 
  • 27
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Municipal Wastewater
The presence of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the environment is increasing and requires the development of technologies for their effective removal. EOCs can be classified into a wide variety of groups depending on their chemical structures and end uses. A popular group of EOCs are pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). The growing use of PhACs is leading to persistence and prolonged exposure of these compounds in the environment, which may eventually affect the enzymatic and metabolic mechanisms of living organisms.
  • 56
  • 19 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Occurrence of Triclosan in the Water Environment
Triclosan (TCS), a kind of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), is widely used and has had a large production over years. It is an emerging pollutant in the water environment that has attracted global attention due to its toxic effects on organisms and aquatic ecosystems, and its concentrations in the water environment are expected to increase since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak.
  • 66
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring with Chemical Sensors
Water quality is one of the most critical indicators of environmental pollution and it affects all of us. Water contamination can be accidental or intentional and the consequences are drastic unless the appropriate measures are adopted on the spot. 
  • 46
  • 09 Sep 2022
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