Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Fluorescence in Smart Textiles
Fluorescence has been identified as an advantageous feature in smart fabrics, notably for the protection of humans during outdoor athletic activities, as well as for preventing counterfeiting and determining authenticity. Fluorescence in smart fabrics is achieved using dendrimers, rare earth metal compounds, and fluorescent dye. The principal method for producing fluorescent fabrics is to immerse the sample in a solution containing fluorescent agents. However, covalent connections between fluorophores and textile substates should be established to improve the stability and intensity of the fluorescent characteristics. Fabric can be fluorescent throughout, or fluorescent fibers can be woven directly into the textile structures, made of natural (cotton, silk) or synthetic (polyamide- and polyester-based) fibers, into a precise pathway that becomes visible under ultraviolet irradiation.
  • 170
  • 30 May 2023
Topic Review
Agarose Hydrogels
Numerous compounds present in the ocean are contributing to the development of the biomedical field. Agarose, a polysaccharide derived from marine red algae, plays a vital role in biomedical applications because of its reversible temperature-sensitive gelling behavior, excellent mechanical properties, and high biological activity. Natural agarose hydrogel has a single structural composition that prevents it from adapting to complex biological environments.
  • 54
  • 26 May 2023
Topic Review
Fireproof Nanocomposite Polyurethane Foams
First introduced in 1954, polyurethane foams rapidly became popular because of light weight, high chemical stability, and outstanding sound and thermal insulation properties. Currently, polyurethane foam is widely applied in industrial and household products. Despite tremendous progress in the development of various formulations of versatile foams, their use is hindered due to high flammability. Fire retardant additives can be introduced into polyurethane foams to enhance their fireproof properties. Nanoscale materials employed as fire-retardant components of polyurethane foams have the potential to overcome this problem.
  • 29
  • 24 May 2023
Topic Review
Chemical Recycling for Plastic Waste
Plastics play an integral role in shaping our modern society and are ubiquitous in our daily lives. Their superior material characteristics, performance, and low production cost make them desirable for vast consumer and industrial applications. Chemical or feedstock recycling refers to any reprocessing technology directly affecting the formulation of polymeric waste or the polymer itself.  The recycling plastic waste through chemical means are explored.
  • 47
  • 23 May 2023
Topic Review
Mucoadhesive and Mucopenetrating Polymer-Based Adjuvants
Mucus is a viscoelastic gel that acts as a protective barrier for epithelial surfaces. The mucosal vehicles and adjuvants need to pass through the mucus layer to make drugs and vaccine delivery by mucosal routes possible. The mucoadhesion of polymer particle adjuvants significantly increases the contact time between vaccine formulations and the mucosa; then, the particles can penetrate the mucus layer and epithelium to reach mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues.
  • 43
  • 23 May 2023
Topic Review
Proton-Conducting Membranes Based on 1-Vinyl-1,2,4-Triazole Homopolymers
Poly-1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole is a unique polymer with a wide range of valuable, practically significant properties.
  • 33
  • 19 May 2023
Topic Review
Benefits of Chemical Desalination
The ideal chemical desalination approach is undertaken (i) without specialist training, (ii) on a typical agricultural holding (1 to 100 ha−1), and (iii) using existing water tanks and/or impoundments. It reduces the overall feed water required to produce x m3 of water (relative to reverse osmosis). It produces minimal or no waste products that require disposal.
  • 98
  • 05 May 2023
Topic Review
Plastic Material Tracking for Circular Economy
Plastics are very versatile materials used in many different applications in everyday life all over the world, with substantial benefits such as durability, flexibility, low weight, and lower cost compared to other alternatives. 
  • 50
  • 27 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Types of Membranes for CO2 Capture and Utilization
Membranes are a promising technology platform for CO2 capture because they are modular, scalable, and compact. This makes them desirable for process intensification and reducing energy costs. Biocatalytic membranes encompass many different types of materials and functionality.
  • 62
  • 25 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Application of Polycaprolactone-Based Materials in Nanoformulations
Among the various materials used for the fabrication of nanoparticles, polycaprolactone (PCL) has gained considerable attention due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and ease of synthesis.
  • 80
  • 25 Apr 2023
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