Topic Review
Computational Simulations of Heart Valves
Computational methods are a cost-effective tool that can be used to evaluate the flow parameters of heart valves. Valve repair and replacement have long-term stability and biocompatibility issues, highlighting the need for a more robust method for resolving valvular disease. For example, while fluid–structure interaction analyses are still scarcely utilized to study aortic valves, computational fluid dynamics is used to assess the effect of different aortic valve morphologies on velocity profiles, flow patterns, helicity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index in the thoracic aorta. It has been analyzed that computational flow dynamic analyses can be integrated with other methods to create a superior, more compatible method of understanding risk and compatibility.
  • 27
  • 10 May 2022
Topic Review
Conventional Approaches of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Statistics
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements combined with chemometrics allow achieving a great amount of information for the identification of potential biomarkers responsible for a precise metabolic pathway. These kinds of data are useful in different fields, ranging from food to biomedical fields, including health science. The investigation of the whole set of metabolites in a sample, representing its fingerprint in the considered condition, is known as metabolomics and may take advantage of different statistical tools. The new frontier is to adopt self-learning techniques to enhance clustering or classification actions that can improve the predictive power over large amounts of data.
  • 17
  • 09 May 2022
Topic Review
Ultrafast Laser in Orthopedic Surgery
The potential of ultrafast lasers (pico- to femtosecond) in orthopedics-related procedures has been studied extensively for clinical adoption. As compared to conventional laser systems with continuous wave or longer wave pulse, ultrafast lasers provide advantages such as higher precision and minimal collateral thermal damages. Translation to surgical applications in the clinic has been restrained by limitations of material removal rate and pulse average power, whereas the use in surface texturing of implants has become more refined to greatly improve bioactivation and osteointegration within bone matrices.
  • 31
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
The concept of entropy constitutes, together with energy, a cornerstone of contemporary physics and related areas. It was originally introduced by Clausius in 1865 along abstract lines focusing on thermodynamical irreversibility of macroscopic physical processes. In the next decade, Boltzmann made the genius connection—further developed by Gibbs—of the entropy with the microscopic world, which led to the formulation of a new and impressively successful physical theory, thereafter named statistical mechanics. The extension to quantum mechanical systems was formalized by von Neumann in 1927, and the connections with the theory of communications and, more widely, with the theory of information were respectively introduced by Shannon in 1948 and Jaynes in 1957. Since then, over fifty new entropic functionals emerged in the scientific and technological literature. The most popular among them are the additive Renyi one introduced in 1961, and the nonadditive one introduced in 1988 as a basis for the generalization of the Boltzmann–Gibbs and related equilibrium and nonequilibrium theories, focusing on natural, artificial and social complex systems. Along such lines, theoretical, experimental, observational and computational efforts, and their connections to nonlinear dynamical systems and the theory of probabilities, are currently under progress. Illustrative applications, in physics and elsewhere, of these recent developments are briefly described in the present synopsis.
  • 159
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
The Phase Field Approach
The phase field approach was developed in the last 20 years to handle radiation damage in materials. This approach bridges the gap between atomistic simulations extensively used to model first step of radiation damage at short time and continuum approach at large time. The main advantage of such an approach lies in its ability to compute not only the microstructure at the nanometric scale but also to calculate generalized susceptibilities such as elastic constants under irradiation.
  • 22
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Line-Shaped-Illumination Two-Photon Microscopy
Line-shaped illumination is a useful configuration to obtain a multifocal pattern to be used in two-photon microscopy: the light beam emitted by the illuminating laser is first shaped by means of cylindrical lenses and then is focused inside the sample as a continuous line. The simultaneous excitation of several points in the specimen is expected to reduce the acquisition time with respect to the usual point-scanning two-photon microscopes, as a two-dimensional image is obtained by scanning the line along a single direction.
  • 37
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
A Specialty Fiber for Distributed Acoustic Sensing Technology
Specialty fibers have introduced new levels of flexibility and variability in distributed fiber sensing applications. In particular, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) systems utilized the unique functions of specialty fibers to achieve performance enhancements in various distributed sensing applications. 
  • 43
  • 28 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon whereby a substance can become a permanent magnet or strongly reacts to a magnetic field. 
  • 52
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Plasmonic Biosensors
Biosensors have globally been considered as biomedical diagnostic tools required in abundant areas including the development of diseases, detection of viruses, diagnosing ecological pollution, food monitoring, and a wide range of other diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical research. Recently, the broadly emerging and promising technique of plasmonic resonance has proven to provide label-free and highly sensitive real-time analysis when used in biosensing applications.
  • 49
  • 26 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Intensity-Modulated Polymer Optical Fiber-Based Refractive Index Sensor
The simple and highly sensitive measurement of the refractive index (RI) of liquids is critical for designing the optical instruments and important in biochemical sensing applications. Intensity modulation-based polymer optical fiber (POF) RI sensors have a lot of advantages including low cost, easy fabrication and operation, good flexibility, and working in the visible wavelength.
  • 37
  • 25 Apr 2022
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