Topic Review
Terahertz Technologies for Virus Sensing
The recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus has made evident critical issues relating to virus sensing and the need for deployable tools for adequate, rapid, effective viral recognition on a large-scale. Although many conventional molecular and immuno-based techniques are widely used for these purposes, they still have some drawbacks concerning sensitivity, safety, laboriousness, long-term collection and data analysis. Therefore, new rapidly emerging approaches have been introduced such as terahertz (THz)-based technologies. The emerging Terahertz (THz) technology is an ideal candidate for virus monitoring and detection purposes, offering various advantages which can be explored. 
  • 32
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
PENG-Based Non-Invasive Medical Sensors
Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) not only are able to harvest mechanical energy from the ambient environment or body and convert mechanical signals into electricity but can also inform people about pathophysiological changes and communicate this information using electrical signals, thus acting as medical sensors to provide personalized medical solutions to patients.
  • 37
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Treatment of Posthemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation
Therapeutic strategies of PHVD to provide some recommendations.
  • 30
  • 18 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Inflammatory Biomarker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration
Inflammation is considered to be a vital defense mechanism for health, acting as a protective response of the immune system through a satisfactory inflammatory biomarker response (IBR). IBR, as well as being beneficial to the organism, can be also responsible for a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is a type of physical exercise that can act on inflammation responses due its capacity for stimulating the sensory components that promote systemic responses.
  • 30
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Random Laser Properties
In a random laser (RL), optical feedback arises from multiple scattering instead of conventional mirrors. RLs generate a laser-like emission, and meanwhile take advantage of a simpler and more flexible laser configuration. The applicability of RLs as light sources and optical sensors has been proved. 
  • 26
  • 13 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Two-Dimensional Nanostructures as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates
Two-dimensional nanostructures (2DNS) attract tremendous interest and have emerged as potential materials for a variety of applications, including biomolecule sensing, due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, tuneable optical and electronic properties. Advancements in the engineering of 2DNS and associated technologies have opened up new opportunities. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a rapid, highly sensitive, non-destructive analytical technique with exceptional signal amplification potential. Several structurally and chemically engineered 2DNS with added advantages (e.g., π–π* interaction), over plasmonic SERS substrates, have been developed specifically towards biomolecule sensing in a complex matrix, such as biological fluids. 
  • 47
  • 11 Jan 2023
Topic Review
The Structural and Optical Properties of Carotenoid Compounds
Carotenoid compounds are ubiquitous in nature, providing the characteristic colouring of many algae, bacteria, fruits and vegetables. They are a critical component of the human diet and play a key role in human nutrition, health and disease. 
  • 49
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Water-Based Liquid Scintillators
Monolithic optical detectors, either water–Cherenkov detectors or liquid scintillator detectors, are a well-established technique in neutrino physics. Using water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) is an approach that exploits Cherenkov and scintillation signals simultaneously; i.e., water is loaded with 1% to 10% liquid scintillator. 
  • 27
  • 04 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Waveguide-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Photonic chip-based methods for spectroscopy are of considerable interest due to their applicability to compact, low-power devices for the detection of small molecules. Waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (WERS) has emerged over the past decade as a particularly interesting approach. WERS utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide to generate Raman scattering from nearby analyte molecules, and then collects the scattered photons back into the waveguide. The large interacting area and strong electromagnetic field provided by the waveguide allow for significant enhancements in Raman signal over conventional approaches.
  • 35
  • 29 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Nanocrystalline Magnetic Semiconductors for Spintronics
Сhallenge for spintronics is to find new ways for the control of electronic phenomena and magnetic properties of solids at nanoscale. Some promising aspects are connected with developing new materials. The research highlights the areas devoted to the creation of new functional materials for spintronics based on magnetic semiconductors and demonstrates the technical possibilities of creating various devices, in particular, a maser, a p-n junction with a colossal magnetoresistance, a spin valve, a magnetic lens, modulators, spin wave amplifier, etc. A magnetic semiconductor is a magnetic material that, in terms of specific conductivity, occupies an intermediate position between a conductor and an insulator, and has a band gap comparable to ~kBT. Most known magnetic semiconductors (SC) are either oxides or chalcogenides (sulfides, selenides and tellurides) of 3d transition metals, rare earth 4f metals or a combination. Spintronics (spin electronics) studies spin current transfer (spin-polarized transport) in condensed media, including contact structures, heterostructures, superlattices and multilayers. Much attention is paid to the mechano-physical methods of obtaining of high-density transparent nanoceramics based on magnetic semiconductors. The potential possibility of using nanoceramics as an absorber of solar energy, as well as in modulators of electromagnetic radiation, is also presented. The THz magneto-optics in magnetic semiconductors is shown to be beneficial to the intensively developing fields of spintronics – ultrafast magnetooptics and magnetophotonics in magnetic semiconductors.
  • 118
  • 20 Dec 2022
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