Topic Review
Monochromatic X-rays
Monochromatic X-ray has a single energy level in contrast to white X-rays used in conventional radiation therapy. Irradiation of high Z elements such as gadolinium, gold and silver with a monochromatic X-ray can result in photoelectric effects that includes the release of the Auger electrons that have strong cell killing effect. To apply this principle to cancer therapy, various nanoparticles loaded with high Z elements have been developed that enabled high Z elements to be delivered to tumor. The recent addition is gadolinium-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Gd-MSN). Tumor spheroids have been used as a convenient tumor model to demonstrate that monochromatic X-rays with energy level at or higher than the K-edge energy of gadolinium can destruct tumor mass that has Gd-MSN distributed throughout tumor spheroids.
  • 3130
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is a spectroscopy based on the energy analysis of neutrons after they have been scattered by a sample. A detected energy transfer can be related to a physical interaction of the corresponding atoms with their environment. An energy transfer of several meVs typically arises from vibrations of atoms. Thus, INS provides an amplitude-of-motion and neutron incoherent cross section weighted phonon density of states.  Given the much higher incoherent scattering cross section of hydrogen relative to that of all other elements, INS is particular sensitive to hydrogen based vibrations. The method is widely used in condensed matter physics and solid state chemistry, because the vibrational properties of matter define various physical properties such as the heat capacity. If used as a fingerprint method, INS can be used to characterize chemical bonds both in the bulk as well as on the surface.
  • 2376
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Computational Chemistry Methods
The main objective of computational chemistry is to solve chemical problems by simulating chemical systems (molecular, biological, materials) in order to provide reliable, accurate and comprehensive information at an atomic level. To this end, there are two main methodological families: those based on quantum chemical methods and those based on molecular mechanics. The former are methods in which the electrons are explicitly accounted for, while in the latter their presence is hidden in the force field. 
  • 2364
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES)
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a vital technique in which spectra are collected from both the energy and momentum of photoemitted electrons and is indispensable for investigating the electronic band structure of solids. 
  • 1956
  • 08 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Lithium-Ion Battery Fire Suppression
Lithium-ion Batteries (LiBs) hazards, techniques for mitigating risks, the suppression of LiB fires and identification of shortcomings for future improvement were thoroughly reviewed. Water is identified as an efficient cooling and suppressing agent and water mist is considered the most promising technique to extinguish LiBs fire. 
  • 1769
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Unmanned Systems
An Unmanned System (US) or Vehicle (UV) can be defined as an “electro-mechanical system, with no human operator aboard, that is able to exert its power to perform designed missions”
  • 1754
  • 17 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity
The teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative geometrical formulation of the relativistic theory of gravitation. A brief description of the  TEGR is presented. The building blocks of the theory and few main achievements are discussed.
  • 1641
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Closed Timelike Curves
Closed timelike curves (CTCs) are space-time trajectories that return to their starting point without violating the laws of special relativity. A traveler along a CTC could journey into the future but arrive in its past, creating a possible violation of the principle of causality. Such CTCs occur in Gödel’s rotating universe and many other general relativistic solutions of classical Einstein’s field equations. The chronological protection conjecture suggests that Nature forbids this kind of situation.
  • 1597
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Transparent Solar Windows
Many modern glass and window products are based on metal-dielectric coatings, which can control properties such as thermal emissivity, heat gain, colour, and transparency. These can also enable solar energy harvesting through PV integration, if the glazing structure is purpose-designed, to include luminescent materials and special microstructures. Recently, significant progress has been demonstrated in building integrated transparent solar windows, which are expected to add momentum towards the development of smart cities. These window systems are, at present in 2019, the only type of transparent and clear construction materials capable of providing significant energy savings in buildings, simultaneously with renewable energy generation.
  • 1466
  • 11 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Laser Absorption Spectroscopy
Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is an absorption spectroscopic method that employs a laser as the light source and measures the chemical concentration based on detection of a variation of laser beam intensity after transmission along the optical path. 
  • 1439
  • 10 Sep 2020
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