Topic Review
Hiranyakashipu (Sanskrit: हिरण्यकशिपु, "clothed in gold"; the name is said to depict one who is very much fond of wealth: hiranya "gold," kashipu "soft cushion") is an Asura from the Puranic scriptures of Hinduism. Hiranyakashipu's Younger Brother, Hiranyaksha was slain by Varaha, one of the Avatars of Vishnu. Angered by this, Hiranyakashipu decided to gain magical powers by performing a penance for Lord Brahma. He was subsequently killed by the Narasimha Avatara of Lord Vishnu. His tale depicts the futility of desiring power over others and the strength of God's protection over his fully surrendered devotees (in the case of his son Prahlada). Hiranyakashipu, according to legend, was the king of the daityas and had earned a boon from Brahma that made him virtually indestructible. He grew arrogant, thought he was God, and demanded that everyone worship only him. The story of Hiranyakashipu is in three parts. The first has to do with the curse of the Four Kumaras on the gatekeepers of Vaikuntha, Jaya and Vijaya, which causes them to be born as the daityas Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha. The second part deals with Hiranyakashipu's penance to propitiate Brahma and gain a boon from him. The final part deals with his efforts to kill his son Prahlada (a devotee of Vishnu) and his subsequent death at the hands of Narasimha.
  • 7.9K
  • 15 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES)
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a vital technique in which spectra are collected from both the energy and momentum of photoemitted electrons and is indispensable for investigating the electronic band structure of solids. 
  • 7.5K
  • 08 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Negawatt Power
Negawatt power is a theoretical unit of power representing an amount of electrical power (measured in watts) saved. The energy saved is a direct result of energy conservation or increased energy efficiency. The term was coined by the chief scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute and environmentalist Amory Lovins in 1985, within the article, "Saving Gigabucks with Negawatts," where he argued that utility customers don’t want kilowatt-hours of electricity; they want energy services such as hot showers, cold beer, lit rooms, and spinning shafts, which can come more cheaply if electricity is used more efficiently. Lovins felt an international behavioral change was necessary in order to decrease countries' dependence on excessive amounts of energy. The concept of a negawatt could influence a behavioral change in consumers by encouraging them to think about the energy that they spend. A negawatt market can be thought of as a secondary market, in which electricity is allocated from one consumer to another consumer within the energy market. In this market, negawatts could be treated as a commodity. Commodities have the ability to be traded across time and space, which would allow negawatts to be incorporated in the international trading system. Roughly 10% of all U.S. electrical generating capacity is in place to meet the last 1% of demand and there is where the immediate efficiency opportunity exists. On March 15, 2011, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the agency that regulates the U.S. electrical grid, approved a rule establishing the approach to compensation for demand response resources intended to benefit customers and help improve the operation and competitiveness of organized wholesale energy markets. This means that negawatts produced by reducing electrical use can demand the same market prices as real megawatts of generated electricity. The incentives for a negawatt market include receiving money, reduction of national energy dependency, and the local electricity deregulation within certain nations or states. As for the cost incentive, those who produce negawatts or simply conserve energy can earn money by selling the saved energy. The negawatt market could help nations or states obtain a deregulated electricity system by creating another market to purchase electricity from. The negawatt market also has two main drawbacks. Currently, there is no way to precisely measure the amount of energy saved in negawatts, and electricity providers may not want customers to use less energy due to the loss of profit.
  • 7.5K
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is a spectroscopy based on the energy analysis of neutrons after they have been scattered by a sample. A detected energy transfer can be related to a physical interaction of the corresponding atoms with their environment. An energy transfer of several meVs typically arises from vibrations of atoms. Thus, INS provides an amplitude-of-motion and neutron incoherent cross section weighted phonon density of states.  Given the much higher incoherent scattering cross section of hydrogen relative to that of all other elements, INS is particular sensitive to hydrogen based vibrations. The method is widely used in condensed matter physics and solid state chemistry, because the vibrational properties of matter define various physical properties such as the heat capacity. If used as a fingerprint method, INS can be used to characterize chemical bonds both in the bulk as well as on the surface.
  • 7.4K
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Paschen's Law
Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length. It is named after Friedrich Paschen who discovered it empirically in 1889. Paschen studied the breakdown voltage of various gases between parallel metal plates as the gas pressure and gap distance were varied: For a given gas, the voltage is a function only of the product of the pressure and gap length. The curve he found of voltage versus the pressure-gap length product (right) is called Paschen's curve. He found an equation that fit these curves, which is now called Paschen's law. At higher pressures and gap lengths, the breakdown voltage is approximately proportional to the product of pressure and gap length, and the term Paschen's law is sometimes used to refer to this simpler relation. However, this is only roughly true, over a limited range of the curve.
  • 7.3K
  • 09 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Nature-inspired optimization algorithms
Over previous decades, many nature-inspired optimization algorithms (NIOAs) have been proposed and applied due to their importance and significance. Some survey studies have also been made to investigate NIOAs and their variants and applications. However, these comparative studies mainly focus on one single NIOA, and there lacks a comprehensive comparative and contrastive study of the existing NIOAs.
  • 7.2K
  • 11 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Two-Ray Ground-Reflection Model
The Two-Rays Ground Reflected Model is a radio propagation model which predicts the path losses between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna when they are in LOS (line of sight). Generally, the two antenna each have different height. The received signal having two components, the LOS component and the multipath component formed predominantly by a single ground reflected wave.
  • 7.0K
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Mooning is the act of displaying one's bare buttocks by removing clothing, e.g., by lowering the backside of one's trousers and underpants, usually bending over, whether also exposing the genitals or not. Mooning is used in the English-speaking world to express protest, scorn, disrespect, or provocation, or can be done for shock value, fun, or as a form of exhibitionism. Some jurisdictions regard mooning to be indecent exposure, sometimes depending on the context.
  • 6.8K
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Intergalactic Space
Outer space, or simply space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F). The plasma between galaxies accounts for about half of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in the universe; it has a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic metre and a temperature of millions of kelvins. Local concentrations of matter have condensed into stars and galaxies. Studies indicate that 90% of the mass in most galaxies is in an unknown form, called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. Observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a type of vacuum energy that is poorly understood. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space. Outer space does not begin at a definite altitude above the Earth's surface. However, the Kármán line, an altitude of 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, is conventionally used as the start of outer space in space treaties and for aerospace records keeping. The framework for international space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty, which entered into force on 10 October 1967. This treaty precludes any claims of national sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space. Despite the drafting of UN resolutions for the peaceful uses of outer space, anti-satellite weapons have been tested in Earth orbit. Humans began the physical exploration of space during the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights. This was followed by manned rocket flights and, then, manned Earth orbit, first achieved by Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union in 1961. Due to the high cost of getting into space, manned spaceflight has been limited to low Earth orbit and the Moon. On the other hand, unmanned spacecraft have reached all of the known planets in the Solar System. Outer space represents a challenging environment for human exploration because of the hazards of vacuum and radiation. Microgravity also has a negative effect on human physiology that causes both muscle atrophy and bone loss. In addition to these health and environmental issues, the economic cost of putting objects, including humans, into space is very high.
  • 6.7K
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Magnetic Potential
The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potential ψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The more frequently used magnetic vector potential is defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: [math]\displaystyle{ \nabla \times \mathbf{A}=\mathbf{B}\, }[/math]. Together with the electric potential φ, the magnetic vector potential can be used to specify the electric field E as well. Therefore, many equations of electromagnetism can be written either in terms of the fields E and B, or equivalently in terms of the potentials φ and A. In more advanced theories such as quantum mechanics, most equations use potentials rather than fields. The magnetic scalar potential ψ is sometimes used to specify the magnetic H-field in cases when there are no free currents, in a manner analogous to using the electric potential to determine the electric field in electrostatics. One important use of ψ is to determine the magnetic field due to permanent magnets when their magnetization is known. With some care the scalar potential can be extended to include free currents as well. Historically, Lord Kelvin first introduced vector potential in 1851, along with the formula relating it to the magnetic field.
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  • 29 Sep 2022
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