Topic Review
Wavefront shaping concepts in OCT
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables three-dimensional imaging with resolution on the micrometer scale. The technique relies on the time-of-flight gated detection of light scattered from a sample and has received enormous interest in applications as versatile as non-destructive testing, metrology and non-invasive medical diagnostics. However, in strongly scattering media such as biological tissue, the penetration depth and imaging resolution are limited. Combining OCT imaging with wavefront shaping approaches significantly leverages the capabilities of the technique by controlling the scattered light field through manipulation of the field incident on the sample.
  • 412
  • 24 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Wave-particle Duality Relation
The Wave–particle duality relation, often loosely referred to as the Englert–Greenberger–Yasin duality relation, or the Englert–Greenberger relation, relates the visibility, [math]\displaystyle{ V }[/math], of interference fringes with the definiteness, or distinguishability, [math]\displaystyle{ D }[/math], of the photons' paths in quantum optics. As an inequality: Although it is treated as a single relation, it actually involves two separate relations, which mathematically look very similar. The first relation, derived by Greenberger and Yasin in 1988, is expressed as [math]\displaystyle{ P^2+ V^2\le 1 \, }[/math]. It was later extended by Jaeger, Shimony, and Vaidman in 1995. This relation involves correctly guessing which of the two paths the particle would have taken, based on the initial preparation. Here [math]\displaystyle{ P }[/math] can be called the predictability. An year later Englert, in 1996, derived a related relation which dealt with experimentally acquiring knowledge of the two paths using an apparatus, as opposed to predicting the path based on initial preparation This relation is [math]\displaystyle{ D^2+ V^2\le 1 \, }[/math]. Here [math]\displaystyle{ D }[/math] is called the distinguishability. The significance of the relations is that they express quantitatively the complementarity of wave and particle viewpoints in double slit experiments. The complementarity principle in quantum mechanics, formulated by Niels Bohr, says that the wave and particle aspects of quantum objects cannot be observed at the same time. The wave–particle duality relations makes Bohr's statement more quantitative – an experiment can yield partial information about the wave and particle aspects of a photon simultaneously, but the more information a particular experiment gives about one, the less it will give about the other. The predictability [math]\displaystyle{ P }[/math] which expresses the degree of probability with which path of the particle can be correctly guessed, and the distinguishability [math]\displaystyle{ D }[/math] which is the degree to which one can experimentally acquire information about the path of the particle, are measures of the particle information, while the visibility of the fringes [math]\displaystyle{ V }[/math] is a measure of the wave information. The relations shows that they are inversely related, as one goes up, the other goes down.
  • 126
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Water-Based Liquid Scintillators
Monolithic optical detectors, either water–Cherenkov detectors or liquid scintillator detectors, are a well-established technique in neutrino physics. Using water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) is an approach that exploits Cherenkov and scintillation signals simultaneously; i.e., water is loaded with 1% to 10% liquid scintillator. 
  • 84
  • 04 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Water Retention on Mathematical Surfaces
Water retention on mathematical surfaces is the catching of water in ponds on a surface of cells of various heights on a regular array such as a square lattice, where water is rained down on every cell in the system. The boundaries of the system are open and allow water to flow out. Water will be trapped in ponds, and eventually all ponds will fill to their maximum height, with any additional water flowing over spillways and out the boundaries of the system. The problem is to find the amount of water trapped or retained for a given surface. This has been studied extensively for two mathematical surfaces: magic squares and random surfaces. The model can also be applied to the triangular grid.
  • 97
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Water Hammer Modelling
Water Hammer is a physical phenomenon that occurs due to sudden stopping of flow in a pipeline system which causes a sudden large pressure rise mimicking the hammering effect. It is considered one of the worst nightmare for hydraulic engineers due to its potential of causing widespread damage to property and lives. Therefore, numerical estimation of water hammer pressure is crucial for the design, operation, and risk analysis of pipeline systems. Generally, the traditional Method of Characteristics (MOC) is preferred by modellers worldwide due to its simplicity and usability. However, due to high shock generation during large water hammer event in pipeline, Finite Volume Method (FVM) has a clear advantage because of its desirable attribute of conserving mass, momentum compared to traditional MOC Schemes. Further, modelling of the water hammer phenomenon for dynamic characteristics within a turbine is impossible using the classical 1D MOC or 1D FVM schemes, and such applications require more extensive 3D grids and turbulence models. Several commercial pieces of software for turbulence modelling available today can be effectively used for this type of study. Some well-known and well-applied turbulence models currently in use are FLUENT and CFX ( on 1 June 2021)).
  • 348
  • 24 Jun 2021
Topic Review
In fluid dynamics, a wake may either be: 1. the region of recirculating flow immediately behind a moving or stationary blunt body, caused by viscosity, which may be accompanied by flow separation and turbulence, or 2. the wave pattern on the water surface downstream of an object in a flow, or produced by a moving object (e.g. a ship), caused by density differences of the fluids above and below the free surface and gravity (or surface tension).
  • 215
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
VSOP (Planets)
The semi-analytic planetary theory VSOP (French: Variations Séculaires des Orbites Planétaires) is a mathematical model describing long-term changes (secular variation) in the orbits of the planets Mercury to Neptune. The earliest modern scientific model considered only the gravitational attraction between the Sun and each planet, with the resulting orbits being unvarying Keplerian ellipses. In reality, all the planets exert slight forces on each other, causing slow changes in the shape and orientation of these ellipses. Increasingly complex analytical models have been made of these deviations, as well as efficient and accurate numerical approximation methods. VSOP was developed and is maintained (updated with the latest data) by the scientists at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris. The first version, VSOP82, computed only the orbital elements at any moment. An updated version, VSOP87, computed the positions of the planets directly at any moment, as well as their orbital elements with improved accuracy. At present, the difference between computational predictions and observations is so small that the model seems essentially complete in its physical principles. Such hypothetical deviations are often referred to as post-Keplerian effects.
  • 98
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Volcanology of Venus
The surface of Venus is dominated by volcanic features and has more volcanoes than any other planet in the Solar System. It has a surface that is 90% basalt, and about 65% of the planet consists of a mosaic of volcanic lava plains, indicating that volcanism played a major role in shaping its surface. There are more than 1,000 volcanic structures and possible periodic resurfacing of Venus by floods of lava. The planet may have had a major global resurfacing event about 500 million years ago, from what scientists can tell from the density of impact craters on the surface. Venus has an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, with a density that is 90 times greater than Earth's atmosphere. Even though there are over 1,600 major volcanoes on Venus, none are known to be erupting at present and most are probably long extinct. However, radar sounding by the Magellan probe revealed evidence for comparatively recent volcanic activity at Venus's highest volcano Maat Mons, in the form of ash flows near the summit and on the northern flank. Although many lines of evidence suggest that Venus is likely to be volcanically active, present-day eruptions at Maat Mons have not been confirmed. Nevertheless, other more recent studies, in January 2020, suggests Venus is currently volcanically active.
  • 220
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Volcanology of Mars
Volcanic activity, or volcanism, has played a significant role in the geologic evolution of Mars. Scientists have known since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972 that volcanic features cover large portions of the Martian surface. These features include extensive lava flows, vast lava plains, and the largest known volcanoes in the Solar System. Martian volcanic features range in age from Noachian (>3.7 billion years) to late Amazonian (< 500 million years), indicating that the planet has been volcanically active throughout its history, and some speculate it probably still is so today. Both Earth and Mars are large, differentiated planets built from similar chondritic materials. Many of the same magmatic processes that occur on Earth also occurred on Mars, and both planets are similar enough compositionally that the same names can be applied to their igneous rocks and minerals. Volcanism is a process in which magma from a planet's interior rises through the crust and erupts on the surface. The erupted materials consist of molten rock (lava), hot fragmental debris (tephra or ash), and gases. Volcanism is a principal way that planets release their internal heat. Volcanic eruptions produce distinctive landforms, rock types, and terrains that provide a window on the chemical composition, thermal state, and history of a planet's interior. Magma is a complex, high-temperature mixture of molten silicates, suspended crystals, and dissolved gases. Magma on Mars likely ascends in a similar manner to that on Earth. It rises through the lower crust in diapiric bodies that are less dense than the surrounding material. As the magma rises, it eventually reaches regions of lower density. When the magma density matches that of the host rock, buoyancy is neutralized and the magma body stalls. At this point, it may form a magma chamber and spread out laterally into a network of dikes and sills. Subsequently, the magma may cool and solidify to form intrusive igneous bodies (plutons). Geologists estimate that about 80% of the magma generated on Earth stalls in the crust and never reaches the surface. As magma rises and cools, it undergoes many complex and dynamic compositional changes. Heavier minerals may crystallize and settle to the bottom of the magma chamber. The magma may also assimilate portions of host rock or mix with other batches of magma. These processes alter the composition of the remaining melt, so that any magma reaching the surface may be chemically quite different from its parent melt. Magmas that have been so altered are said to be "evolved" to distinguish them from "primitive" magmas that more closely resemble the composition of their mantle source. (See igneous differentiation and fractional crystallization.) More highly evolved magmas are usually felsic, that is enriched in silica, volatiles, and other light elements compared to iron- and magnesium-rich (mafic) primitive magmas. The degree and extent to which magmas evolve over time is an indication of a planet's level of internal heat and tectonic activity. The Earth's continental crust is made up of evolved granitic rocks that developed through many episodes of magmatic reprocessing. Evolved igneous rocks are much less common on cold, dead bodies such as the Moon. Mars, being intermediate in size between the Earth and the Moon, is thought to be intermediate in its level of magmatic activity. At shallower depths in the crust, the lithostatic pressure on the magma body decreases. The reduced pressure can cause gases (volatiles), such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, to exsolve from the melt into a froth of gas bubbles. The nucleation of bubbles causes a rapid expansion and cooling of the surrounding melt, producing glassy shards that may erupt explosively as tephra (also called pyroclastics). Fine-grained tephra is commonly referred to as volcanic ash. Whether a volcano erupts explosively or effusively as fluid lava depends on the composition of the melt. Felsic magmas of andesitic and rhyolitic composition tend to erupt explosively. They are very viscous (thick and sticky) and rich in dissolved gases. Mafic magmas, on the other hand, are low in volatiles and commonly erupt effusively as basaltic lava flows. However, these are only generalizations. For example, magma that comes into sudden contact with groundwater or surface water may erupt violently in steam explosions called hydromagmatic (phreatomagmatic or phreatic) eruptions. Erupting magmas may also behave differently on planets with different interior compositions, atmospheres, and gravitational fields.
  • 147
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Void Coefficient
In nuclear engineering, the void coefficient (more properly called void coefficient of reactivity) is a number that can be used to estimate how much the reactivity of a nuclear reactor changes as voids (typically steam bubbles) form in the reactor moderator or coolant. Net reactivity in a reactor is the sum total of all these contributions, of which the void coefficient is but one. Reactors in which either the moderator or the coolant is a liquid typically will have a void coefficient value that is either negative (if the reactor is under-moderated) or positive (if the reactor is over-moderated). Reactors in which neither the moderator nor the coolant is a liquid (e.g., a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled reactor) will have a void coefficient value equal to zero. It is unclear how the definition of 'void' coefficient applies to reactors in which the moderator/coolant is neither liquid nor gas (supercritical water reactor).
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  • 22 Nov 2022
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