Topic Review
Extractions and Processing of Biologically Active Compounds
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in sustainable ways. Functional foods commonly incorporate some plant extract(s) rich with BACs produced by conventional extraction. This approach implies negative thermal influences on extraction yield and quality with a large expenditure of organic solvents and energy. On the other hand, sustainable extractions, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), high-pressure assisted extraction (HPAE), high voltage electric discharges assisted extraction (HVED), pulsed electric fields assisted extraction (PEF), supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and others are aligned with the “green” concepts and able to provide raw materials on industrial scale with optimal expenditure of energy and chemicals. 
  • 244
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Lipid Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been recognized as the green and clean technique without any negative impact on the environment. Although this technique has shown high selectivity towards lipophilic bioactive compounds, very few case studies on the application of these extracts in final products and different food matrices were observed.
  • 91
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Teaching Clinical Reasoning to Veterinary Medical Learners with a Case Example
Clinical reasoning is an essential competence of veterinary graduands. It is a complex competence with cognitive, metacognitive, social, and situational activities. The literature on clinical reasoning in veterinary medical education is relatively scarce or focused on theoretical rather than practical applications. In this review, we address the practicality of teaching clinical reasoning to veterinary learners utilizing a practical example of a cow with allergic rhinitis. Learners should be guided through all the domains of clinical reasoning, including concepts, data collection and analysis, take action, and reflection on an encounter. Each of these domains needs to be clearly but concisely explained and practiced repeatedly by learners throughout the veterinary curricula. The teaching of clinical reasoning should start as early in the curriculum as possible, preferably in the pre-clinical years, with a gradual scaffolding and building of complexity before work-based learning begins, with an increase in demanding for advanced clinical reasoning competence. The teaching of clinical reasoning is best performed in specialized sessions and continued as a horizontally and vertically integrated activity.
  • 401
  • 10 May 2024
Topic Review
Bio-Dealcoholization of Wines
The link between viticulture and climate change has become more evident in recent years. The temperature rise has been a crucial factor in the early ripening of grapes, which has resulted in wines with imbalanced acidity, higher alcohol content, and higher pH values. Consumers are seeking high-quality and healthy products, and this trend has extended to wine consumption.
  • 443
  • 09 May 2024
Topic Review
Immunity and Metabolism in Aortic Dissection
Aortic dissection (AD) is a cardiovascular disease that seriously endangers the lives of patients. The mortality rate of this disease is high, and the incidence is increasing annually, but the pathogenesis of AD is complicated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have shown that immune cell infiltration in the media and adventitia of the aorta is a novel hallmark of AD. These cells contribute to changes in the immune microenvironment, which can affect their own metabolism and that of parenchymal cells in the aortic wall, which are essential factors that induce degeneration and remodeling of the vascular wall and play important roles in the formation and development of AD.
  • 188
  • 09 May 2024
Topic Review
Drought
Droughts are an environmental challenge that often cause significant losses of livelihoods the world over. For instance, rain-fed agriculture, livestock production, biodiversity, and several ecosystem services (ES) that are fundamental to human well-being are increasingly threatened by more severe droughts. 
  • 1.0K
  • 30 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Venom Constituents of Rattlesnake Venoms
Venom components are invaluable in biomedical research owing to their specificity and potency. Many of these components exist in two genera of rattlesnakes, Crotalus and Sistrurus, with high toxicity and proteolytic activity variation. 
  • 323
  • 18 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress and Poultry
A challenge facing the poultry industry is related to the spread of pathogens within commercial farms and, consequently, its high dependence on antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals. Although the inclusion of antibiotics at sub-therapeutical levels in broiler diets has proven to be an efficient strategy through which to suppress the pathogenic bacteria in the gut and enhance animal performance, their usage as growth promoters has been banned in Europe due to concerns regarding the consequences of antibiotic resistance on human health. Under this context, plenty of phytochemicals and antioxidants are being explored in broiler diets.
  • 228
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Avian Influenza A Viruses Modulate the Cellular Cytoskeleton
Influenza is one of the most prevalent causes of death worldwide. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) naturally infect various avian and mammalian hosts, causing seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics with high morbidity and mortality. The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic showed how an animal virus strain could unpredictably acquire the ability to infect humans with high infection transmissibility. Importantly, highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) may cause human infections with exceptionally high mortality. Because these latter infections pose a pandemic potential, analyzing the ecology and evolution features of host expansion helps to identify new broad-range therapeutic strategies. Although IAVs are the prototypic example of molecular strategies that capitalize on their coding potential, the outcome of infection depends strictly on the complex interactions between viral and host cell factors. Most of the studies have focused on the influenza virus, while the contribution of host factors remains largely unknown. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of mammals’ host response to AIV infection is crucial.
  • 258
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
The Role of Biomaterials in Optic Neuropathies
Hereditary optic neuropathies (HONs) such as dominant optic atrophy (DOA) and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) are mitochondrial diseases characterized by a degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and are a cause of blindness worldwide. To date, there are only limited disease-modifying treatments for these disorders. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has opened several promising opportunities in the field of HON research and the search for therapeutic approaches. 
  • 199
  • 15 Apr 2024
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