Topic Review
Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Honey
Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a relapsing vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida species. In 57% of the cases, relapses occur within six months after fluconazole maintenance therapy, which is the current standard of care. The pathogenesis of RVVC is multifactorial, and recent studies have demonstrated that the vaginal microenvironment and activity of the immune system have a strong influence on the disease. 
  • 194
  • 30 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Obstetric Brachial Palsy
Obstetric Brachial Palsy (OBP) is defined as a partial or total flaccid paralysis that affects the upper limb of the newborn due to brachial plexus injury occurring in normal delivery, and, more rarely, in cesarean section, often associated with shoulder dystocia
  • 184
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Application of Sol–Gels for Treatment of Gynaecological Conditions
Approaches for effective and sustained drug delivery to the female reproductive tract (FRT) for treating a range of gynaecological conditions remain limited. The development of versatile delivery platforms, such as soluble gels (sol–gels) coupled with applicators/devices, holds considerable therapeutic potential for gynaecological conditions. Sol–gel systems, which undergo solution-to-gel transition, triggered by physiological conditions such as changes in temperature, pH, or ion composition, offer advantages of both solution- and gel-based drug formulations. Furthermore, they have potential to be used as a suitable drug delivery vehicle for other novel drug formulations, including micro- and nano-particulate systems, enabling the delivery of drug molecules of diverse physicochemical character. Hence, such systems are are of profound significance in delivering the drugs to various parts of FRT for optimal treatment of various gynecological conditions which was not achievable using conventional drug delivery technologies.
  • 182
  • 24 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers
Ovarian cancer is the eighth-most common cause of death among women worldwide. In the absence of distinctive symptoms in the early stages, the majority of women are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease. Surgical debulking and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy remain the mainstays of treatment, with the development of chemoresistance in up to 75% of patients with subsequent poor treatment response and reduced survival. Therefore, there is a critical need to revisit existing, and identify potential biomarkers that could lead to the development of novel and more effective predictors for ovarian cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The capacity of these biomarkers to predict the existence, stages, and associated therapeutic efficacy of ovarian cancer would enable improvements in the early diagnosis and survival of ovarian cancer patients. 
  • 182
  • 15 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Corpus luteum
The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland in the ovary. In the ovarian cycle, repeated patterns of specific cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation occur that accompany the formation and regression of the corpus luteum. Molecular mechanism events in the ovarian microenvironment, such as angiogenesis and apoptosis, are complex. Recently, we focused on the role of RAS protein in the ovarian corpus luteum. RAS protein plays a vital role in the modulation of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation by molecular pathway signaling. Additionally, reproductive hormones regulate RAS activity in the cellular physiological function of ovarian follicles during pre-ovulatory maturation and ovulation. Thus, we have reviewed the role of RAS protein related to the biological events of the corpus luteum in the ovary.
  • 176
  • 11 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
Understanding the factors that contribute to women’s alcohol use in pregnancy is of critical importance to women's health and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Alcohol use in pregnancy is influenced by a range of contextual and structural factors, including poverty, histories of trauma and violence, physical and mental health concerns, normalization of alcohol in social networks, sociocultural and economic vulnerabilities and disadvantage, and child welfare involvement. Therefore, beyond supporting individual change, it is necessary to address a range of structural and systemic issues through the adoption of emerging gender-, trauma-, cultural, and equity-informed interventions. 
  • 176
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Vascular Dysfunction in Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy-associated cardiovascular disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria at 20 weeks of gestation. Potential abnormalities include impaired placentation, incomplete spiral artery remodeling, and endothelial damage, which are further propagated by immune factors, mitochondrial stress, and an imbalance of pro- and antiangiogenic substances. Newfound evidence indicates that vasopressin is an early mediator and biomarker of the disorder, and promising future therapeutic avenues include mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction, excess oxidative stress, and the resulting inflammatory state.
  • 173
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Prenatal Care
Care in the preconception stage and during pregnancy are essential for the health of the mother and the baby. Maternal feeding plays a fundamental role as a modulator of the prevention of maternal and fetal pathology.
  • 170
  • 25 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly being employed in the management of breast cancer patients. To ensure that health care needs are adequately addressed, clinicians must consider that women with breast cancer have a high risk of developing “unmet needs” during treatment, and often require a clinical intervention or additional care resources to limit possible complications and psychological issues that can occur during neoadjuvant treatment.
  • 169
  • 27 May 2021
Topic Review
Oviductal Extracellular Vesicles
In this review, we have described characteristics of extracellular vesicles in the oviduct from different species and their role in supporting oocytes, sperm, and embryos.
  • 166
  • 16 Nov 2020
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