Topic Review
Various Attachments for Implant Overdentures
This study presents an overview of the biomechanical and biomolecular aspects of various attachments for implant overdenture. We focused on the following topics: attachment systems, retention of various attachments, stress distribution with different attachments, the design and fabrication of attachments, digital techniques in overdenture attachments, and the effects of attachments in peri-implant health. We found that plastic resin is commonly used for ball and bar attachments, whereas nylon resin is commonly used in locator attachments. The locator system offers a valuable attachment option for implant-retained overdenture. Attachment retention reduces while lateral force increases with implant inclination in overdenture. The higher the retention of an overdenture attachment, the higher the transferred stresses. Additionally, clip loading produces more stress in implants and precision elements than bar-retained dentures. As such, we conclude that the ball and locator systems the best overdenture systems due to their superior tissue response, survival rate, and patient satisfaction.
  • 5.7K
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Polyoxymethylene
Polyoxymethylene (POM) is a material able to provide tooth-colored esthetics and that is suitable for fabrication of frameworks for removable dental prostheses. POM can be characterized as both polyethers (-C-O-) as well as polyacetals (-O-C-O-).
  • 3.8K
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Post-COVID-19 Symptoms and Dental Management
The available data regarding the short and long-term consequences of COVID-19 is still insufficient. This entry aims to provide information on the prolonged COVID-19 symptoms in recovered patients and their implications during dental management. 
  • 3.5K
  • 27 May 2021
Topic Review
Dental Plaque
Dental plaque is a community of microorganisms found on the surface of teeth or other hard surfaces like dentures and embedded in a matrix of polymers of both host and bacterial origin.
  • 2.5K
  • 23 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Dentistry
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have been found to be beneficial tools for clinical practice and for enhancing the learning experiences of students during their pre-clinical education and training sessions. Clinicians can use VR technology to show their patients the expected outcomes before the undergo dental procedures. Additionally, AR and VR can be implemented to overcome dental phobia, which is commonly experienced by pediatric patients. Future studies should focus on forming technological standards with high-quality data and developing scientifically-proven AR/VR gadgets for dental practice. 
  • 2.3K
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Gingival Crevicular Fluid
The Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) consists of various host and bacterial-derived products as well as biomarkers which in turn can be evaluated for the diagnosis, prognosis as well as management of the periodontal disease. 
  • 2.1K
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Mandibular Leeway Space of Taiwanese Children
Leeway space, the most crucial space for the alignment of permanent teeth, is the difference between the sum of the mesiodistal crown widths of the primary canines and molars and that of their successors, the permanent canines and premolars. Primary molars have greater mesiodistal crown widths than the permanent premolars that replace them, especially the primary second molar. Leeway space has been preserved and utilized to resolve crowding, particularly by allowing the first molars to drift mesially to establish a Class I molar relationship in the late mixed dentition.
  • 2.1K
  • 10 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Ceramic Materials for Biomedical Applications
The word “biomaterial” refers to a substance or a mix of materials of synthetic or natural origin interacting with biological systems. The main purpose of biomaterials is to support the healing or replacement of an organ in a human body that has been altered by a disease or an accidental event and to successfully restore function and sometimes aesthetic features without endangering human life. Biomaterials can be classified according to their chemical nature as metallic, polymeric, ceramic, and composite, and can also be biologically derived. The term “ceramic” (from the Greek word κεραμικό: “keramikò,” which means “burnt stuff”), a word that is also found in ancient texts, indicates any heat-treated material derived from clayey raw materials through a process called firing. Generally speaking, ceramics are inorganic materials consisting of metallic and non-metallic components chemically bonded together by means of ionic or prevalently ionic bonds with a variable degree of covalent character. 
  • 1.8K
  • 07 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Polyurethanes in Biomedicine
Due to their mechanical properties, ranging from flexible to hard materials, polyurethanes (PUs) have been widely used in many industrial and biomedical applications. PU characteristics, along with their biocompatibility, make them successful biomaterials in short and medium time applications.  The most important biomedical applications of PUs include antibacterial surfaces and catheters, blood oxygenators, dialysis devices, stents, cardiac valves, vascular prostheses, bioadhesives/surgical dressings/pressure sensitive adhesives, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds and electrospinning, nerve generation, pacemaker lead insulation and coatings for breast implants. The diversity of polyurethane properties due to the ease of bulk and surface modification plays a vital role in their applications. 
  • 1.8K
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Halitosis
Halitosis, also known as fetor ex ore, bad breath or oral malodor, is a common disorder meaning unpleasant smell from the mouth. Halitosis is a common problem that manifests as an unpleasant and disgusting odor emanating from the mouth[1]. Malodor is mainly caused by putrefactive actions of microorganisms on endogenous or exogenous proteins and peptides. Oral malodor is an embarrassing condition that affects a large percentage of the human population. This condition often results in nervousness, humiliation, and social difficulties, such as the inability to approach people and speak to them[2][3][4][5][6].
  • 1.6K
  • 11 Sep 2020
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