Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Processes
Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
  • 1.2K
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Additively Manufactured Polylactic Acid in Dentistry
Additive manufacturing (AM), which is also called rapid prototyping/3D printing/layered manufacturing, can be considered as a rapid conversion between digital and physical models. One of the most used materials in AM is polylactic acid (PLA), which has advantageous material properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and nontoxicity. For many medical applications, it is considered as a leading biomaterial. In dentistry, in addition to its uses in dental models (education, teaching, simulation needs), it can be used for therapeutic objectives and tissue engineering.
  • 524
  • 28 Jun 2023
Topic Review
AI Applications in Dental Diagnostics and Cephalometric Analysis
Artificial intelligence (AI) describes the ability of machines to perform tasks that are classified as intelligent. AI can be classified into two main categories: symbolic AI and machine learning (ML). Symbolic AI involves structuring an algorithm in a way that is easily understandable to humans. Machine learning (ML) is the predominant paradigm in the field of AI. The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine has transformed various medical specialties, including orthodontics. AI has shown promising results in enhancing the accuracy of diagnoses, treatment planning, and predicting treatment outcomes. Its usage in orthodontic practices worldwide has increased with the availability of various AI applications and tools.
  • 130
  • 17 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Amelioration Strategies for Silver Diamine Fluoride
Topical cariostatic agents have become a reasonable alternative for managing dental caries in young children. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a practical topical approach to arrest caries and avoid extensive and risky dental treatment. The rapid oxidation of ionic silver darkens demineralised tooth structure permanently. In this regard, nano-metallic antimicrobials could augment or substitute for silver, and thereby enhance SDF aesthetic performance.
  • 510
  • 07 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Amelogenin-Derived Peptides
Amelogenins are enamel matrix proteins currently used to treat bone defects in periodontal surgery. Recent studies have highlighted the relevance of amelogenin-derived peptides, named LRAP, TRAP, SP, and C11, in bone tissue engineering. Interestingly, these peptides seem to maintain or even improve the biological activity of the full-length protein, which has received attention in the field of bone regeneration.
  • 616
  • 11 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Anterior Open Bite Treatment with Skeletal Anchorage
Anterior open bite (AOB) is still one of the most difficult and demanding clinical problems. This malocclusion relies on a reduction in the vertical relationship between the incisal edges of the upper and lower incisors.
  • 666
  • 29 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Anti-tumor Photodynamic Therapy
Anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a unique oxidative stress-based modality that has proven highly effective on a variety of solid malignancies. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has a critical role in the therapeutic outcome of this modality.
  • 474
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Antifungals in Preventing Oropharyngeal Candidiasis among HIV-Infected Adults
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is attributed to the overgrowth of the commensal fungi, Candida spp., in the mouth and throat. Among HIV-infected adults, there is an increased risk of developing OPC due to the loss of cell-mediated immunity. Fluconazole can be considered as an effective agent with a better safety profile for the prevention of OPC in HIV-infected adults.
  • 340
  • 22 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Antisclerostin Effect on Osseointegration and Bone
Sclerostin is a glycoprotein encoded in humans by the SOST gene. It is located on chromosome 17q12-q21, with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like (CTCK) domain. It has a similar sequence also to DAN (Differential screening-selected gene Aberrative in Neuroblastoma), an antagonist’s family of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Sclerostin is primarily produced and secreted by osteocytes. Moreover, it is a negative key regulator of osteoblastic functions. It inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway after binding with LRP5 and 6 (Wnt-coreceptor). This canonical Wnt signaling (Wnt/β-catenin pathway) is essential in bone healing. It promotes pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteo-induction, enhances survival of all cells of the osteoblast lineage, inhibits differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes and adipocytes and controls osteoclast maturation by regulating RANKL levels in osteoblast receptors.
  • 241
  • 15 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Application of Silver in Medicine and Pharmacy
In the context of the growing resistance of microorganisms to available, widely used antibiotics, silver plays a key role. There is only one known case of bacterial resistance to silver—the Pseudomonas stutzeri strain, which naturally occurs in silver mines. The development of research in the field of coordination chemistry offers great opportunities in the design of new substances in which silver ions can be incorporated. 
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  • 06 Nov 2023
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