Topic Review
"Zorbas" on Southeastern Sicily
Over the last few years, several authors have presented contrasting models to describe the response of boulders to extreme waves, but the absence of direct observation of movements has hindered the evaluation of these models. The recent development of online video-sharing platforms in coastal settings has provided the opportunity to monitor the evolution of rocky coastlines during storm events. In September 2018, a surveillance camera of the Marine Protected Area of Plemmirio recorded the movement of several boulders along the coast of Maddalena Peninsula (Siracusa, Southeastern Sicily) during the landfall of the Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone (Medicane) Zorbas. Unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys were performed to reconstruct immersive virtual scenarios to geometrically analyze the boulder displacements recorded in the video. Analyses highlighted that the displacements occurred when the boulders were submerged as a result of the impact of multiple small waves rather than due to a single large wave. Comparison between flow velocities obtained by videos and calculated through relationships showed a strong overestimation of the models, suggesting that values of flow density and lift coefficient used in literature are underestimated.
  • 659
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Effect of Potassium on Tea Plant Growth
Potassium is among the three essential macronutrients for tea plants, along with nitrogen and phosphorous, and plays important roles in growth and stress response. Potassium is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element except nitrogen and, in some cases, calcium. Potassium is positively correlated with the elements nitrogen, copper, and zinc. Sufficient potassium dramatically improves the yield and quality of tea: it accelerates metabolism, promotes synthesis of catechins, and strengthens biotic and abiotic resistance by activating and regulating different enzymes. Moderate application of potassium fertilizers, along with potassium-solubilizing bacteria, can regulate the ratio of different forms of potassium and increase available potassium in soils of tea gardens.
  • 58
  • 06 Sep 2022
Topic Review
17O in Hydrological Cycle
17O is the one of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen, and also it has the lowest abundance, 0.038%(). The distribution of isotopes in hydrological systems is controlled by isotope fractionation processes. Oxygen isotopes fractionate through mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, which includes kinetic processes, isotopic exchange reactions, and physicochemical phenomena (diffusion, condensation, and evaporation).
  • 234
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Malaysia
The tsunami is one of the deadliest natural disasters, responsible for more than 260,000 deaths and billions in economic losses over the last two decades. The footage of the devastating power of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami perhaps remains vivid in the memory of most survivors, and Malaysia was one of the countries affected by the unprecedented 2004 tsunami. It was the first time the Malaysian government had managed such a great disaster. A compilation of post-event observations regarding tsunami characteristics is first presented in the form of maps, followed by building damage, including damage modes of wall failure, total collapse, debris impact and tilting of structures.
  • 141
  • 25 Aug 2022
Topic Review
3D Printed Electromagnetic Vibration Harvesters
Energy harvesting is the utilisation of ambient energy in order to power electronics such as wireless sensor nodes (WSN) or wearables without the need of batteries. This allows to operate the node over a much longer time period compared to battery-powered devices along with lower maintenance efforts. Furthermore, the low-maintenance requirements allow to operate these WSNs in environments with limited or no accessibility.
  • 296
  • 05 Nov 2021
Topic Review
5G for Climate Change Control
Climate change is one of the most challenging problems that humanity has ever faced. With the rapid development in technology, a key feature of 5G networks is the increased level of connectivity between everyday objects, facilitated by faster internet speeds with smart facilities indicative of the forthcoming 5G-driven revolution in Internet of Things (IoT).
  • 512
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
A city Multi-Floor Manufacturing Cluster
Multi-floor manufacturing cluster (MFMC) comprise production and service enterprises of various types of ownership, mainly SMEs, with different production orientations, with the presence of small-scale in-house equipment. This feature of MFMC promotes business competition, allowing for creating collaborative and networked organizations that can happen at some stages of development and can reach a level of a virtual manufacturing network based on Digital Twins models to fulfil customer orders.
  • 262
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
A Focus on Active Chemicals in Sub-Saharan Africa
Active chemicals are among the contaminants of emerging concern that are rarely covered in regulatory documents in sub-Saharan Africa. 
  • 226
  • 31 Dec 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
A General Description of Karst Types
This study includes a general description of the Earth’s karst types based on literary data and field observations. An improved classification of karst types distinguishes the main group, group, and subgroup; and, a division of karst types involves a main karst type, karst type, subtype, variety, and non-individual karst type. The relation between karst type and karst area is described. The role of various characteristics of karsts in the development of primary, secondary, and tertiary karst types is analyzed. Their structure is studied, which includes a geomorphic agent, process, feature, feature assemblage, karst system and the characteristics of the bearing karst area. Dominant, tributary, and accessory features are distinguished. The conditions of the stability and the development of types are studied, transformation ways are classified, and the effect of climate on types is described.
  • 35
  • 26 Sep 2022
Topic Review
A State-of-the-Art Vegetation Map for Jordan
Jordan’s forested regions account for 0.71% of the total land area, with acacia woodland and forests combined totalling 2.3%. From the satellite image interpretation, two maps were created: an unsupervised land cover/land use map and a supervised map of present-day vegetation types, both consisting of 18 categories. These new maps should inform ecosystem management and conservation planning decisions in Jordan over the coming years. 
  • 157
  • 14 Mar 2022
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