Topic Review
Environmental Risk Factors
Environmental health is a growing area of knowledge, continually increasing and updating the body of evidence linking the environment to human health.
  • 12.5K
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Malaysia
The tsunami is one of the deadliest natural disasters, responsible for more than 260,000 deaths and billions in economic losses over the last two decades. The footage of the devastating power of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami perhaps remains vivid in the memory of most survivors, and Malaysia was one of the countries affected by the unprecedented 2004 tsunami. It was the first time the Malaysian government had managed such a great disaster. A compilation of post-event observations regarding tsunami characteristics is first presented in the form of maps, followed by building damage, including damage modes of wall failure, total collapse, debris impact and tilting of structures.
  • 12.4K
  • 25 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Flood Prediction Using ML Models
Floods are among the most destructive natural disasters, which are highly complex to model. The research on the advancement of flood prediction models contributed to risk reduction, policy suggestion, minimization of the loss of human life, and reduction of the property damage associated with floods. To mimic the complex mathematical expressions of physical processes of floods, during the past two decades, machine learning (ML) methods contributed highly in the advancement of prediction systems providing better performance and cost-effective solutions. Due to the vast benefits and potential of ML, its popularity dramatically increased among hydrologists.Researchers through introducing novel ML methods and hybridizing of the existing ones aim at discovering more accurate and efficient prediction models. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the state of the art of ML models in flood prediction and to give insight into the most suitable models. In this paper, the literature where ML models were benchmarked through a qualitative analysis of robustness, accuracy, effectiveness, and speed are particularly investigated to provide an extensive overview on the various ML algorithms used in the field. The performance comparison of ML models presents an in-depth understanding of the different techniques within the framework of a comprehensive evaluation and discussion. As a result, this paper introduces the most promising prediction methods for both long-term and short-term floods. Furthermore, the major trends in improving the quality of flood prediction models are investigated. Among them, hybridization, data decomposition, algorithm ensemble, and model optimization are reported as the most effective strategies for the improvement of ML methods. This survey can be used as a guideline for hydrologists as well as climate scientists in choosing the proper ML method according to the prediction task.
  • 11.4K
  • 04 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Macroplastic
The term macroplastics describes plastic items with a diameter ≥ 5 mm. With this size definition macroplastics can be directly distinguished from microplastics (diameter < 5 mm). Plastic items ≥ 5 mm are commonly considered to be macroplastics once they are released into the environment. Other terminologies used synonymous to macroplastic are “macro litter", “anthropogenic litter”, “plastic litter”, “marine litter”, “marine plastic” and “plastic debris”. 
  • 11.4K
  • 09 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Water Quality Degradation
Water quality degradation is happened through the natural processes that influence the surface water and groundwater quality by various sources such as climate changes, natural disasters, geological factors, soil-matrix, and hyporheic exchange. Water could also be contaminated by anthropogenic factors. Anthropogenic pollutants are substances caused by human actions, mostly resulting from land-use practices. 
  • 11.3K
  • 05 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Smart Clothing
Smart clothing can be defined as the intelligent system that senses and reacts to the changes and stimuli of the environment and the wearer’s conditions, such as electrical, thermal and magnetic ones. Smart clothing has various functions (e.g., protection, temperature regulation, monitoring, entertainment, expression of personality, etc.) and embodies many features (e.g., efficient, intelligent, computable, etc.), combining cutting-edge technologies in related fields such as electronic information, sensors and materials. Smart clothing has emerged to meet consumers’ personalized needs in healthcare, work, entertainment, etc., and has rapidly become a hotspot in the clothing industry and research field. However, as smart clothing gets popular, sustainability issues are becoming increasingly prominent during its development and circulation. 
  • 10.3K
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality Index
A critical water quality index (WQI) method has been used to determine the overall water quality status of surface water and groundwater systems globally since the 1960s. WQI follows four steps: parameter selection, sub-indices, establishing weights, and final index aggregation.
  • 10.0K
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Single Point Mooring (SPM) Systems with Buoys
The SPM system consists of four main components, namely, the body of the buoy, the anchoring and mooring components, the fluid transfer system and the ancillary elements. Static legs linked to the seabed underneath the surface keep the buoy body in place. Above the water level, the body has a spinning portion that is attached to the offloading/loading tanker. A roller bearing, referred to as the main bearing, connects these two portions. Due to this array, the anchored tanker can easily weather-vane around the buoy and find a steady position. The concept of the buoy is determined by the type of bearing utilized and the divide between the rotating and geostatic sections. The buoy’s size is determined by the amount of counter buoyancy required to keep the anchor chains in place, and the chains are determined by environmental conditions and vessel size.
  • 9.8K
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period. It altered the vast coal forests that covered the equatorial region of Euramerica (Europe and America). This event may have fragmented the forests into isolated 'islands', which in turn caused dwarfism and, shortly after, extinction of many plant and animal species. Following the event, coal-forming tropical forests continued in large areas of the Earth, but their extent and composition were changed. The event occurred at the end of the Moscovian and continued into the early Kasimovian stages of the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous).
  • 9.5K
  • 08 Oct 2022
Topic Review
List of Islands of Australia
This is a list of selected Australian islands grouped by State or Territory. Australia has 8,222 islands within its maritime borders.
  • 9.3K
  • 14 Oct 2022
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