Topic Review
Zeolite/Pharmaceuticals System
Zeolites belong to aluminosilicate microporous solids, with strong and diverse catalytic activity, which makes them applicable in almost every kind of industrial process, particularly thanks to their eco-friendly profile. Another crucial characteristic of zeolites is their tremendous adsorption capability. Therefore, it is self-evident that the widespread use of zeolites is in environmental protection, based primarily on the adsorption capacity of substances potentially harmful to the environment, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or other industry pollutants. On the other hand, zeolites are also recognized as drug delivery systems (DDS) carriers for numerous pharmacologically active agents. The enhanced bioactive ability of DDS zeolite as a drug carrying nanoplatform is confirmed, making this system more specific and efficient, compared to the drug itself. These two applications of zeolite, in fact, illustrate the importance of (ir)reversibility of the adsorption process. 
  • 1.2K
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Zeolite Types Used in Catalytic Methane Combustion
The emission of methane leads to the increase in the methane concentration in the atmosphere, which not only wastes resources but also intensifies the greenhouse effect and brings about serious environmental problems. Catalytic combustion can completely convert methane into carbon dioxide and water at low temperatures. However, the catalytic activities of the conventional supported palladium catalysts (e.g., Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/ZrO2) are easy to decrease or the two catalysts can even be deactivated under actual harsh reaction conditions (high temperatures, steam- and sulfur dioxide-containing atmospheres, etc.). Noble metal catalysts supported on zeolites with ordered pores and good thermal stability have attracted much attention. 
  • 356
  • 08 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt
The Zagros fold and thrust belt (Zagros FTB) is an approximately 1,800-kilometre (1,100 mi) long zone of deformed crustal rocks, formed in the foreland of the collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is host to one of the world's largest petroleum provinces, containing about 49% of the established hydrocarbon reserves in fold and thrust belts and about 7% of all reserves globally.
  • 1.0K
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Younger Dryas
The Younger Dryas (around 12,900 to 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions after the Late Glacial Interstadial, which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) started receding around 20,000 BP. It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, as its leaves are occasionally abundant in late glacial, often minerogenic-rich sediments, such as the lake sediments of Scandinavia. Physical evidence of a sharp decline in temperature over most of the Northern Hemisphere has been discovered by geological research. This temperature change occurred at the end of what the earth sciences refer to as the Pleistocene epoch and immediately before the current, warmer Holocene epoch. In archaeology, this time frame coincides with the final stages of the Upper Paleolithic in many areas. The Younger Dryas was the most recent and longest of several interruptions to the gradual warming of the Earth's climate since the severe LGM, about 27,000 to 24,000 years BP. The change was relatively sudden, taking place in decades, and it resulted in a decline of temperatures in Greenland by 4 to 10°C (7.2 to 18°F) and advances of glaciers and drier conditions, over much of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It is thought to have been caused by a decline in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which transports warm water from the Equator towards the North Pole, in turn thought to have been caused by an influx of fresh, cold water from North America to the Atlantic. The Younger Dryas was a period of climatic change, but the effects were complex and variable. In the Southern Hemisphere and some areas of the Northern Hemisphere, such as southeastern North America, a slight warming occurred.
  • 3.3K
  • 14 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Years of Living Dangerously
Years of Living Dangerously is an American documentary television series focusing on global warming. The first season was broadcast in the US in 2014 on Showtime. It won an Emmy Award as Outstanding Documentary or Nonfiction Series. The second season aired on the National Geographic Channel in 2016. Executive producers included James Cameron, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and series creators Joel Bach and David Gelber (formerly of 60 Minutes). Joseph Romm and Heidi Cullen were the chief science advisors. The weekly episodes featured celebrity hosts with a history of environmental activism and well-known journalists with a background in environmental reportage. These "correspondents" traveled the world and throughout the U.S. to interview experts and ordinary people affected by, and seeking solutions to, the effects of global warming. They acted as reporters and proxies for the audience, asking questions to find out people's opinions and to discover the scientific evidence. The final episode of season one featured an interview of President Barack Obama. Episodes explored the effects of rising sea levels, historic droughts and flooding, water scarcity, ocean acidification, deforestation and the rapidly increasing extinction rate of species, but also focused on "solutions that individuals, communities, companies and even governments can use to address worldwide climate change", including cheaper solar and wind energy, advancing battery technology and electric cars. Hosts included Cameron, Schwarzenegger, Harrison Ford, Ian Somerhalder, America Ferrera, David Letterman, Gisele Bündchen, Jack Black, Matt Damon, Jessica Alba, Sigourney Weaver, and various other actors and journalists. Schwarzenegger reflected on how the series tries to make the issue of climate change resonate with the public: "I think the environmental movement only can be successful if we are simple and clear and make it a human story. We will tell human stories in this project. The scientists would never get the kind of attention that someone in show business gets." Cameron elaborated: "We didn’t use our celebrities as talking head experts, because they’re not climate experts. They were concerned, intelligent, curious citizens who were out to find answers. They were functioning as journalists." Newsweek said that the celebrity hosts "lend sparks to an issue that sends most viewers for the exits".
  • 988
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Yangtze River Valley
The Yangtze River Valley is an important economic region and one of the cradles of human civilization. It is also the site of frequent floods, droughts, and other natural disasters. Conducting Holocene environmental archaeology research in this region is of great importance when studying the evolution of the relationship between humans and the environment and the interactive effects humans had on the environment from 10.0 to 3.0 ka BP, for which no written records exist.
  • 1.5K
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Yana, India
Yana is a village located in forests of the Sirsi and Kumta Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India which is known for the unusual karst rock formations. It is located in the Sahyadri mountain range of the Western Ghats, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) from Karwar port, 39 kilometres (24 mi) from Sirsi, and 31 kilometres (19 mi) from Kumta. Yana is one of the wettest villages in the world. It is the cleanest village in Karnataka, and the second cleanest village in India . The two unique rock outcrops near the village are a tourist attraction and easily approachable by a small trek through 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) of thick forests from the nearest road head. Yana is famous for these two massive rock outcrops known as the Bhairaveshwara Shikhara and the Mohini Shikhara ("Shikhara" means "hill"). The huge rocks are composed of solid black, crystalline karst limestone. Bhairaveshwara Shikhara is 120 metres (390 ft) in height, while the Mohini Shikhara, which is smaller, is 90 metres (300 ft) in height. Yana is also well known as a pilgrimage centre because of the cave temple below the Bhairaveshwara Shikhara where a Swayambhu ("self manifested", or "that which is created by its own accord") linga has been formed. Water drips from the roof over the linga, adding to the sanctity of the place. During Shivaratri here, a car festival is held, along with other festivities. The place and its surrounding hillocks are also known for their evergreen scenic forests.
  • 566
  • 14 Oct 2022
Topic Review
World-Wide Data of Organochlorine Pesticide in Agricultural Soils
Soil constitutes the central environmental compartment that, primarily due to anthropogenic activities, is the recipient of several contaminants. Among these are organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which are of major concern, even though they were banned decades ago due to their persistence and the health effects they can elicit. Soil pollution by OCPs should be an essential aspect of the characterization of whole soil quality, considering that a significant percent of soils on a global scale are in the borderline of suitability for cultivation and pertinent activities. The latter, to an extent, is attributed to the presence of organic contaminants, especially those of persistent chemical natures.
  • 597
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Wood-based pellets in Southeastern US
Effects of pellet production on selected Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) are evaluated using industry information, available energy consumption data, and published research findings. Challenges associated with identifying relevant SDG goals and targets for this particular bioenergy supply chain and potential deleterious impacts are discussed. We find that production of woody pellets in the SE US and shipments to displace coal for energy in Europe generate positive effects on affordable and clean energy (SDG 7), decent work and economic growth (SDG 8), industry innovation and infrastructure (SDG 9), responsible consumption and production (SDG 12), and life on land (SDG 15). Primary strengths of the pellet supply chain in the SE US are the provisioning of employment in depressed rural areas and the displacement of fossil fuels. Weaknesses are associated with potential impacts on air, water, and biodiversity that arise if the resource base and harvest activities are improperly managed. The SE US pellet supply chain provides an opportunity for transition to low-carbon industries and innovations while incentivizing better resource management.
  • 769
  • 31 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Wood Waste Management from the Furniture Industry
Proper management of wood waste (WW) from the furniture industry has become an important issue. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that is widely used for identifying environmental gains in WW management strategies.
  • 264
  • 04 Jan 2024
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