Topic Review
‘Lockdown’: Digital and Emergency eLearning Technologies
The pandemic disrupted all aspects of citizens’ lives—health services, the economy and educational practices. Government-mandated social distancing and stay-at-home injunctions required a drastic change in educational processes and delivery. The digital economy became the glue holding the “socially-distanced economy” together. As Bhaskar et al. (p. 6) contended, digitalization helped people to work, learn, shop, and socialize while locked down; it allowed society to cling to some semblance of normalcy.
  • 7
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Entry includes definition of overtourism phenomenon around the world with following literature references both historical and current research.
  • 4892
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Fleur de sel
As mechanized processes developed, small producers of traditional sea salt ceased to be competitive. However, when the valuable salt flower (a.k.a. fleur de sel, flower of salt) market appeared, it gave new breath to the activity of traditional salt pan production. Salt flower sensitivity and delicateness became a part of modern food habits. Its crystals present some grain differentiation and these can fulfill diversified consumer tastes. In cooking art, a regular fine flower of salt can be used to finish dishes, whereas a longer and thin grain known as ‘scale’ (a.k.a. écaille de fleur de sel in French) can be used for a more gourmet-like palate.
  • 65
  • 03 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Sui Generis Geographical Indications for Apparel and Footwear
In a global context marked by deterritorialization, free circulation of people and products, and appraisal of cultural differences, the researchers ground the proposition that extending sui generis Geographical indications (GIs) to fashion items would be a favorable solution for both communicating the genius loci and promoting sustainable practices. This process would go hand in hand with the creation of shorter and more responsible supply chains, deeply connecting the wearer and the local fields and pushing for individual or community agency. Building on the lessons learnt from the food industry, though, in the fashion sector, the path could be set in the reverse direction, with GIs being granted to companies not only because of the local scope of production but also considering the abidance by specific sustainability criteria.
  • 113
  • 27 May 2022
Topic Review
2019–2020 Vaping Lung Illness Outbreak
Template:Infobox outbreak An outbreak of severe vaping-associated lung illness starting in 2019 is ongoing among users of cannabis vaping products, almost exclusively in the United States. The first cases were identified in Illinois and Wisconsin in April 2019; as of January 21, 2020, a total of 2,711 hospitalized cases, including 60 deaths have been confirmed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Cases peaked in September 2019, and have been slowly declining since. CDC investigators identified direct exposure to chemicals present in vaping products as responsible for the outbreak. Vitamin E acetate is a very strong culprit of concern in the lung illnesses related to THC-based vaping products, but the CDC did not rule out other chemicals as possible causes. Though patients have reported using vaping products containing THC, nicotine, or both types, about 86% of patients studied by the CDC admitted THC use. The majority of those affected were young adults 18-34, which is the group with the greatest prevalence of cannabis use in the US. Nicotine-containing products are regulated in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration; THC products are illegal under federal law, but allowed and regulated by some states. Prior to the outbreak, vitamin E acetate was used in low concentrations, or lower than 20% of the formula in vape cartridges, as a thickening agent. As a result of a limited availability of cannabis in California as well as high demand, illicit sellers had used about 50% or higher of diluent thickeners in their formulas to bulk up tiny potency vape cartridges, and vitamin E acetate is a common choice because it resembles THC oil. Some jurisdictions took action to restrict the sale of products containing vitamin E acetate and other chemicals in response to the outbreak, but THC products in states where it is illegal and some nictotine-containing products are produced illegally (and sometimes obtained illegally in jurisdictions where legal, by underage consumers).
  • 10
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
A Connected Community Approach to Building Community Resilience
Urban resilience research is recognizing the need to complement a mainstream preoccupation with “hard” infrastructure (electrical grid, storm sewers, etc.) with attention to the “soft” (social) infrastructure issues that include the increased visibility of and role for civil society, moving from (top-down, paternalistic) government to (participatory) governance. Analyses of past shock events invariably point to the need for more concerted efforts in building effective governance and networked relations between civil society groupings and formal institutions before, during, and after crisis. However, the literature contains little advice on how to go about this. A Connected Communities Approach is advanced that offers the missing guidance, and it's key features are explained.
  • 249
  • 20 Oct 2021
Topic Review
A COVID-19 Education Recovery Program
As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, many students have developed substantial educational delays, both cognitively and social-emotionally. To counter such negative effects of the school closures, several policies and support strategies on attainment and social-emotional well-being have been proposed and implemented. In the Netherlands, the focus is on using evidence-based interventions to boost educational achievement. The question is, however, how evidence-based the interventions really are. 
  • 455
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
A Development Strategy of a Low-Density Territory
Montesinho Natural Park is one of the largest Portuguese natural protected areas, presenting good biodiversity and a cultural heritage with a strong connection to the territory and its people. It constitutes a low-density territory, characterized by a human and social landscape based on community practices, such as joint aid and the community use of goods and means of agricultural production, which have contributed to the construction of the “transmontana” identity and to the richness of the habitats. The promotion of the sustainable development of this low-density rural region demands the understanding of its specificities and an appropriate approach to grasp its challenges and develop effective management tools, allowing to preserve and exploit the region’s potential from various perspectives. 
  • 219
  • 25 Apr 2022
Topic Review
A healthy socioemotional foundation in education
In the early school years, the emphasis is more and more on cognitive output factors. Non-cognitive development is receiving less attention than before, though such factors are important determinants of academic success. This study focuses on socioemotional characteristics, more specifically, on attitudes, behavior, and relationships of 6500 grade 2 pupils who participated in the representative Dutch large-scale cohort study COOL5-18. The results showed that the teachers rated their pupil’s work attitude as lower than their behavior and popularity. They were more positive regarding their relationship with the pupils. More important was that there were differences according to the pupils’ social and ethnic/immigrant backgrounds: ethnic minority/immigrant pupils scored less positive on all non-cognitive characteristics than native Dutch pupils, and the higher the parental educational level, the more favorable their children performed on the non-cognitive characteristics. These findings are discussed and possible solutions are presented.
  • 132
  • 20 Apr 2022
Topic Review
A New Perspective on Perceived Overqualification
A new perspective on perceived overqualification:This article contains five variables, perceived overqualification, innovative behavior, felt trust, ability face pressure and length of service. Perceived overqualifications refer to the level of knowledge, skills, experience, and ability that an individual possesses that exceeds the requirements of the current job, which is a situation of underemployment. Employee innovative behavior refers to the new ideas, new products, new services, or new methods that employees generate in their work that are meaningful to the enterprise. Felt trust refers to the perception of one party’s willingness to take risks for the actions of another party. Ability face pressure, also known as “perceived face threat based on ability,” is a result of the perceived possibility and potential risk of losing face due to the individual’s desire for others to recognize their own abilities, achievements, and status. Length of service is the length of time an employee has worked since entering an organization, where the length of service can have an important impact on employees’ perceptions, self-evaluations, attitudes, and even behaviors. In studying the relationship between perceived overqualification and innovation behavior, this entry introduces new perspectives and variables, felt trust, ability face pressure, and length of service to conduct research, and has made some findings, as detailed in the entry.
  • 155
  • 08 Apr 2022
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