Topic Review
¡Democracia Real YA!
¡Democracia Real YA! (DRY, Spanish for Real Democracy NOW!), also known as Plataforma Democracia Real Ya! (Real Democracy NOW Platform!), is a grassroots citizens' organization that was started in March 2011 in Spain. It sparked the political movement of May 15, 2011 (15M) whose protests gained worldwide attention. The protests been compared to the May 1968 social movement in France. ¡Democracia Real YA! is associated with approximately 200 smaller organizations. ¡Democracia Real YA! states in its manifesto that it is a broad social movement, dedicated to nonviolent protest, and that maintains no affiliation with any political party or labor union. It has not appointed any single leader and is unwilling to join any of the existing political bodies. It is, however, not an entirely apolitical movement. ¡Democracia Real YA! considers the current political and economic system incapable of listening to and representing its citizens and therefore demands changes to the current social and economic policies, which have led many people into unemployment, loss of their homes, and poverty. The organization denounces the way big businesses and banks dominate the political and economic sphere and aims to propose a series of solutions to these problems through grassroots participatory democracy and direct democracy, which is based on people's assemblies and consensus decision making. The movement drew inspiration from the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests, the Arab Spring, the 2010–11 Greek protests and the 2010–11 revolutions in Tunisia. The protest movement gained momentum on May 15 with a camping occupation in Madrid's main square, the Puerta del Sol, spreading to squares in 57 other major and smaller cities in Spain, and then to Spanish embassies all around the world. In April 2012 some of the initiators of the movement, following an Extraordinary General Meeting of the Platform held in Leganes, the movement split announcing the creation of an organizational structure and rules as a partnership, taking the same name, Asociación Democracia Real Ya, which caused the rejection of part of the rest of the members of the movement. Thus, there are currently active platform Real Democracy Now! on the one hand, and the association DRY on the other hand.
  • 656
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
‘Buildability’ in the Digital Age
Since the emergence of the concept of “buildability” in 1983, numerous studies have focused on improving project performance through buildability. Initially, the buildability discourse was based on narrow definitions and focused on aspects that could improve construction performance.
  • 354
  • 23 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Entry includes definition of overtourism phenomenon around the world with following literature references both historical and current research.
  • 6.9K
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
“Pseudo-Contracted” Workers in Greece
Non-standard forms of employment, also called “flexible” or “new forms” of employment, such as temporary employment, part-time employment, seasonal employment, project agreement, leasing through TWAs, and outsourcing are a worldwide rapidly expanding phenomenon that affects more than one-third of the worldwide workforce. Flexible or new forms of employment emerged in the 1980s and gained popularity during the acute financial crisis (2007), as well as during the recent pandemic COVID-19 that also hugely affected Europe and the USA. More specifically, in 2022, the EU-27 marked rates of 12.1% of temporary employment and 17.6% of part-time employment over total employment. Enterprises turn to flexible forms of employment when aiming to reduce labour costs and to increase their productivity and competitiveness. More specifically, enterprises reduce their internally allocated range of tasks and assign part of or entire activities to external undertakings, thus expanding labour market segmentation and amplifying social inequalities among the employees.
  • 223
  • 20 Nov 2023
Topic Review
DYX1C1 Gene on Chinese Children’s Reading Achievements
Reading comprehension refers to the capacity of an individual to comprehend and interpret the intended message of an author through written text in the most objective manner possible. 
  • 183
  • 16 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Fleur de sel
As mechanized processes developed, small producers of traditional sea salt ceased to be competitive. However, when the valuable salt flower (a.k.a. fleur de sel, flower of salt) market appeared, it gave new breath to the activity of traditional salt pan production. Salt flower sensitivity and delicateness became a part of modern food habits. Its crystals present some grain differentiation and these can fulfill diversified consumer tastes. In cooking art, a regular fine flower of salt can be used to finish dishes, whereas a longer and thin grain known as ‘scale’ (a.k.a. écaille de fleur de sel in French) can be used for a more gourmet-like palate.
  • 440
  • 03 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Lamparello v. Falwell
Lamparello v. Falwell, 420 F.3d 309, was a legal case heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit concerning allegations of cybersquatting and trademark infringement. The dispute centered on the right to use the domain name, and provides discussion on cybersquatting as it applies to criticism of a trademark. In 1999, Christopher Lamparello created a website to respond to and criticize the anti-homosexual statements by the American Christian evangelical preacher Jerry Falwell. Lamparello's website was located at (note the misspelling). Believing that there was confusing similarity between the domain name and Falwell's own name, domain name, and other trademarks, Falwell and his ministries attempted to legally block Lamparello from using the mark "fallwell" and transfer the ownership of the domain name to Falwell. The initial decisions (ruled by the National Arbitration Forum in 2003 and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia in 2004) decided in favor of Falwell, granting Falwell's claims of federal trademark infringement, false designation of origin, unfair competition, and cybersquatting. On appeal in 2005, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed the earlier decisions, ruling that there was not a "likelihood of confusion" between Lamparello's and Falwell's official site; that there was no trademark infringement based on "initial interest confusion" for sites that were non-commercial and critical of the trademark holder; and since Lamparello's site was non-commercial, there was no "bad faith intent to profit" and it was not cybersquatting.
  • 334
  • 05 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Sui Generis Geographical Indications for Apparel and Footwear
In a global context marked by deterritorialization, free circulation of people and products, and appraisal of cultural differences, the researchers ground the proposition that extending sui generis Geographical indications (GIs) to fashion items would be a favorable solution for both communicating the genius loci and promoting sustainable practices. This process would go hand in hand with the creation of shorter and more responsible supply chains, deeply connecting the wearer and the local fields and pushing for individual or community agency. Building on the lessons learnt from the food industry, though, in the fashion sector, the path could be set in the reverse direction, with GIs being granted to companies not only because of the local scope of production but also considering the abidance by specific sustainability criteria.
  • 507
  • 27 May 2022
Topic Review
The Reactionary Mind
The Reactionary Mind: Conservatism from Edmund Burke to Sarah Palin is a 2011 book written by political theorist Corey Robin. It argues that conservatism from the 17th century to today is based on the principle "that some are fit, and thus ought, to rule others". Robin argues that rather than being about liberty, limited government, resistance to change, or public virtue, conservatism is a "mode of counterrevolutionary practice" to preserve hierarchy and power.
  • 362
  • 17 Nov 2022
Topic Review
1978–79 Boston College Basketball Point Shaving Scandal
The 1978–79 Boston College basketball point shaving scandal involved a scheme in which members of the American Mafia recruited and bribed several Boston College Eagles men's basketball players to ensure the team would not win by the required margin (not cover the point spread), allowing the gamblers in the know to place wagers against that team and win.
  • 888
  • 08 Nov 2022
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