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Submitted by: Norbert Radacsi
4D printing is the fabrication process of 3D objects that can change their shape over time or in response to an environmental stimulus. This process demonstrates a radical shift in additive manufacturing.
Submitted by: Natalia Czaplicka
Technologies for the management of various types of waste and the production of useful products from them are currently widely studied. Both carbon dioxide and calcium-rich waste from various production processes are problematic wastes that can be used to produce calcium carbonate. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about the state of the development of processes that use these two wastes to obtain a valuable CaCO3 powder.
Submitted by: Luis Isasi
Triple bottom line (3BL) approaches to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) often involve trade-offs between their three dimensions (economic, environmental, and social). Under some circumstances, however, synergic approaches (typically involving disruptive innovations) might allow simultaneous improvement in one or more dimensions without compromising the others. This entry analyzes one such case: the potential of properly designed additive manufacturing approaches in the automotive spare parts industry to simultaneously boost profits and reduce environmental impact.It is based on the systematic analysis of the real spare parts business of a mid-size automotive brand in Spain. Its results suggest that such synergic, self-reinforcing opportunities do indeed exist, and might even be further developed by  strategically integrating sustainability constituents, while completely changing the current spare parts' business model. 
Submitted by: Amna Farrukh
Green lean six sigma (GLSS) is an emerging approach towards environmental sustainability in conjunction with operational achievements. The success of this approach is premised on an understanding of the different components of a GLSS program; being the determinants for its outcomes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the various constructs of GLSS that play an essential role in achieving environmental sustainability. For this purpose, a systematic review of available literature has been conducted to evaluate the drivers, enablers (tools), and outcomes of a GLSS strategy as well as its critical success factors and barriers. Findings reveal that these constructs of GLSS as a holistic approach can facilitate an organization to better accomplish environmental objectives such as waste minimization, emission reduction, and resource conservation as compared to constructs of only one or any two of these strategies. Based on the analysis, an integrated GLSS framework is developed for environmental sustainability in addition to identifying vital research gaps and future directions.
Submitted by: Wei Zhou
A brief state-of-the-art  introduction of digital twins for additive manufacturing.
Submitted by: Qiwu Luo
Automated visual inspection (AVI) instrument targeting on surface quality emerges as a standard configuration for metal planar materials (e.g., steel, aluminum, copper plates and strips, etc.) to improve product quality and promote production efficiency. A general AVI instrument provides two main functions of defect detection and classification. The former detection process recognizes defective regions from normal background without identifying what types of defects they are. The latter process is dedicated to identify and label detected defects to support finishing product grading. The classification accuracy is directly determined by the precision of defect detection; thus, the overall performance of an AVI system is mainly limited by the accuracy, time efficiency, and robustness of various algorithms in the process of defect detection. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface defect detection technologies are used for defect detection. According to the algorithm properties, the existing two-dimensional methodologies are categorized into four groups: statistical, spectral, model, and machine learning-based methods. On the basis of three-dimensional data acquisition, the three-dimensional technologies are divided into stereoscopic vision, photometric stereo, laser scanner, and structured light measurement methods. 
Submitted by: Abdul Salam Khan
A CLSC can be defined as “a supply chain system entailing design and implementation for enhancing the useful value throughout the product life cycle while dynamically extracting value from different returned products”[1].
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a key performance indicator used to measure equipment productivity. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze the evolution of OEE, present modifications made over the original model and identify future development areas.
Submitted by: Waleed Ahmed
Current environmental concerns have led to a search of more environmentally friendly manufacturing methods, thus, natural fibers have gained attention in the 3D printing industry to be used as biofilters along with thermoplastics. The utilization of natural fibers is very convenient as they are easily available, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and biodegradable. Using natural fibers rather than synthetic fibers in the production of the 3D printing filaments will reduces gas emissions associated with the production of the synthetic fibers that would add to the current pollution problem. As a matter of fact, natural fibers have a reinforcing effect on plastics. This review analyzes how the properties of the different types of polymers vary when natural fibers processed to produce filaments for 3D Printing are added. The results of using natural fibers for 3D Printing are presented in this study and appeared to be satisfactory, while a limited number of studies have reported some issues.
Submitted by: Mattia Frascio
Here, we aim to assess the current modelling and experimental achievements in the design for additive manufacturing of bonded joints, providing a summary of the current state of the art. To limit its scope, the document is focused only on polymeric additive manufacturing processes. As a result, this work contains a structured collection of the tailoring methods adopted for additively manufactured adherends and adhesives with the aim of maximizing bonded joint performance. 
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