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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Brijesh Tiwari
Air is recognized as an important source of microbial contamination in food production facilities and has the potential to contaminate the food product causing food safety and spoilage issues for the food industry. Potential for aerial microbial contamination of food can be a particular issue during storage in cold rooms when the food is not packaged and is exposed to contaminated air over a prolonged period. Thus, there are potential benefits for the food industry for an aerial decontamination in cold storage facilities. It is considered that current systems may not be completely effective and environmentally friendly, therefore, it is of great significance to consider the development of nonresidual and verified decontamination technologies for the food industry and, in particular, for the cold storage rooms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Apr 2020
Submitted by: Weiwen Zhang
One of the most recent manifestations of avionics system is Distributed Integrated Modular Avionics (DIMA).  The study of DIMA architecture is essential when considering two levels of mappings, that is (1) software modules to hardware components, and (2) hardware components to installation locations. This entry describes the hierarchical design of DIMA, including system layer, hardware layer and installation layer that are linked with a group of constraints and quality measures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Wei Fan
A technology that uses artificial methods to make sea water flow from top to bottom. The upper oxygen-rich water can be sent to the bottom hypoxic zone to alleviate marine environmental problems.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Prasanna Kolar
Autonomous navigation is a very important area in the huge domain of mobile autonomous vehicles.  Sensor integration is a key concept that is critical to the successful implementation of navigation.  As part of this publication, we review the integration of Laser sensors like LiDAR with vision sensors like cameras.  The past decade, has witnessed a surge in the application of sensor integration as part of smart-autonomous mobility systems. Such systems can be used in various areas of life like safe mobility for the disabled, disinfecting hospitals post Corona virus treatments, driver-less vehicles, sanitizing public areas, smart systems to detect deformation of road surfaces, to name a handful.  These smart systems are dependent on accurate sensor information in order to function optimally. This information may be from a single sensor or a suite of sensors with the same or different modalities. We review various types of sensors, their data, and the need for integration of the data with each other to output the best data for the task at hand, which in this case is autonomous navigation. In order to obtain such accurate data, we need to have optimal technology to read the sensor data, process the data, eliminate or at least reduce the noise and then use the data for the required tasks. We present a survey of the current data processing techniques that implement integration of multimodal data from different types of sensors like LiDAR that use light scan technology, various types of Red Green Blue (RGB) cameras that use optical technology and review the efficiency of using fused data from multiple sensors rather than a single sensor in autonomous navigation tasks like mapping, obstacle detection, and avoidance or localization. This survey will provide sensor information to researchers who intend to accomplish the task of motion control of a robot and detail the use of LiDAR and cameras to accomplish robot navigation
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Biography
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Carlos Calafate
Carlos Tavares CalafateFull professor Department of Computer Engineering Technical University of Valencia (UPV), Spain
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Marco Rivera
Complex control structures are required for the operation of photovoltaic electrical energy systems. In this paper, a general review of the controllers used for photovoltaic systems is presented. This entry is based on the most recent papers presented in the literature. The control architectures considered are complex hybrid systems that combine classical and modern techniques, such as artificial intelligence and statistical models. The main contribution of this paper is the synthesis of a generalized control structure and the identification of the latest trends. The main findings are summarized in the development of increasingly robust controllers for operation with improved efficiency, power quality, stability, safety, and economics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Yingjie Chen
The development and application of emerging technologies of Industry 4.0 enable the realization of digital twins (DT), which facilitates the transformation of the manufacturing sector to a more agile and intelligent one. DTs are virtual constructs of physical systems that mirror the behavior and dynamics of such physical systems. A fully developed DT consists of physical components, virtual components, and information communications between the two. Integrated DTs are being applied in various processes and product industries. Although the pharmaceutical industry has evolved recently to adopt Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives and is undergoing a paradigm shift of digitalization to embrace Industry 4.0, there has not been a full DT application in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the progress of the pharmaceutical industry towards implementing DT solutions. The aim of this entry is to give an overview of the current status of DT development and its application in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. State-of-the-art Process Analytical Technology (PAT) developments, process modeling approaches, and data integration studies are reviewed. Challenges and opportunities for future research in this field are also discussed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Yujia Li
In recent years, interest in in-pipe robot research has been steadily increasing. This phenomenon reflects the necessity and urgency of pipe inspection and rehabilitation as several pipe networks have become outdated around the globe. In-pipe robots can be divided into several groups in accordance with their locomotion principles, each with its own advantages and best suited application scope. Research on the screw drive in-pipe robot (SDIR) has had a rising trend due to the robot’s simple driving mechanism design and numerous advantages. 
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Taewoong Park
The electrical activity of the brain reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is determined by neurons, glia cells, and the blood-brain barrier, which is mainly caused by nerve cells.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Pedro Baptista
Microfluidic (MF) advancements have been leveraged toward the development of state-of-the-art platforms for molecular diagnostics, where isothermal amplification schemes allow for further simplification of DNA detection and quantification protocols. The MF integration with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is today the focus of a new generation of chip-based devices for molecular detection, aiming at fast and automated nucleic acid analysis. Here, we combined MF with droplet digital LAMP (ddLAMP) on an all-in-one device that allows for droplet generation, target amplification, and absolute quantification. This multilayer 3D chip was developed in less than 30 minutes by using a low-cost and extremely adaptable production process that exploits direct laser writing technology in “Shrinky-dinks” polystyrene sheets. ddLAMP and target quantification were performed directly on-chip, showing a high correlation between target concentration and positive droplet score. We validated this integrated chip via the amplification of targets ranging from five to 500,000 copies/reaction. Furthermore, on-chip amplification was performed in a 10 µL volume, attaining a limit of detection of five copies/µL under 60 min. This technology was applied to quantify a cancer biomarker, c-MYC, but it can be further extended to any other disease biomarker.
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