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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Julius Liobikas
Definition: Anthocyanins are biologically active water-soluble plant pigments that are responsible for blue, purple, and red colors in various plant parts—especially in fruits and blooms. Anthocyanins have attracted attention as natural food colorants to be used in yogurts, juices, marmalades, and bakery products. Numerous studies have also indicated the beneficial health effects of anthocyanins and their metabolites on humans, including free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Emilio Stefani
Definition: Xanthomonads, members of the family Xanthomonadaceae, are economically important plant pathogenic bacteria responsible for infections of over 400 plant species. Bacteriophage-based biopesticides can provide an environmentally friendly, effective solution to control these bacteria. Bacteriophage-based biocontrol has important advantages over chemical pesticides, and treatment with these biopesticides is a minor intervention into the microflora. However, bacteriophages’ agricultural application has limitations rooted in these viruses’ biological properties as active substances. These disadvantageous features, together with the complicated registration process of bacteriophage-based biopesticides, means that there are few products available on the market.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Muhammad Moaaz Ali
Definition: Fruit bagging consists essentially of enclosing a young fruit in a food bag by capping the bag with a ribbon or a clamp on the fruit stalk. Isolating the fruit from the external environment protects it during development from mechanical or biotic damage, especially in regions where fruits are prone to attacks by fungi, bacteria, insects and even birds.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Alessandro Natalini
Definition: Due to novel and more demanding consumers’ requirements, breeding of vegetable crops confronts new challenges to improve the nutritional level and overall appearance of produce. Such objectives are not easy to achieve considering the complex genetic and physiological bases. Overtime, plant breeders relied on a number of technologies and methods to achieve ever changing targets. F1 hybrid seed production allowed the exploitation of heterosis and facilitated the combination of resistance and other useful genes in a uniform outperforming variety. Mutagenesis and tissue culture techniques permitted to induce novel variation, overcome crossing barriers, and speed up the achievement of true-breeding lines. Marker-assisted selection was one of the milestones in fastening selection, starting from the early ’90s in almost all seed companies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Xinyi Yang
Definition: Drought is one of the most important factors restricting agricultural production, which seriously affects crop yield.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Zhaohe Yuan
Definition: Many fruit trees have been whole-genome sequenced, and these genomic resources provide us with valuable resources of genes related to interesting fruit traits (e.g., fruit color, size and taste) and help to facilitate the breeding progress. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), one economically important fruit crop, has attracted much attention for its multiple colors, sweet and sour taste, soft seed and nutraceutical properties. In recent years, the phylogenesis of pomegranate has been revised which belongs to Lythraceae. So far, three published pomegranate genomes including ‘Taishanhong’, ‘Tunisia’ and ‘Dabenzi’ have been released on NCBI with open availability. This article analyzed and compared the assembly and annotation of three published pomegranate genomes. We also analyzed the evolution-development of anthocyanin biosynthesis and discussed pomegranate population genetics for soft seed breeding. These provided some references for horticultural crop breeding on the basis of genomic resources, especially pomegranate.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Cassandra C. Funsten
Definition: Historic garden management seeks to direct the evolution of complex cultural and natural heritage sites towards best meeting the needs of their owners, visitors and community. This entails balancing the conservation of these delicate socio-ecological systems with accessibility to the many environmental, economic and socio-cultural benefits that they provide. Thus, historic garden management must be operational, continual and sustainable; it involves multiple stakeholders, and most of all, must be adaptive. That is why it is especially useful to conceive of historic garden management as a cyclical process that loops through a strategic phase, an operational phase and an assessment phase. In order to understand the many facets and challenges of historic garden management, a systematic review was carried out on international academic literature addressing this topic, with special attention regarding the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability. Academic studies on this subject come from many different disciplines, making it both stimulating and fragmented. This review seeks to consolidate these interdisciplinary efforts into a clear vision, including a framework of key themes and research methods. An analysis of the reviewed literature shows that research has focused on describing the gardens themselves, with few studies interested in the people sustaining them. Future research should follow recent policy documents’ lead and pay more attention to community value and involvement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Koffi Djaman
Definition: Interest in organic foods is increasing at a moment when humanity is facing a range of health challenges including the concern that some conventionally produced foods may pose possible adverse effects on human and livestock health. Consumers are showing increasing interest in organically grown potatoes due to their nutritional quality and health protection value.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Giulia Atzori
Definition: Vegetable and ornamental crops require high input demand to adequately support their standard commercial quality and yield. For these crops, a very high level of agronomic use efficiency of many productive factors can be achieved in soilless culture. The challenges that we now face: (i) making soilless systems more inclusive of sustainable and eco-friendly growing substrates, possibly available at a local level; (ii) replacing chemicals with more sustainable products (e.g., organic active compounds) as much as possible for plant nutrition and protection. This may be addressed by different approaches, among which the adoption of peat-free organic substrates may play a central role.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Hasan Mehraj
Definition: A protocorm-like structure those are generated from the vegetative explant in vitro, are known as protocorm like body (PLB). For the mass propagation of plant, PLBs regeneration is one of the key focusing. Orchid is the largest genus of the flowering plants and they have number of commercially important genus. Orchids are difficult to propagate by seeds and vegetative propagation methods. In vitro propagation is the most efficient technique for the orchid propagation. Induction and proliferation of PLBs can accelerate their propagation by reduce the time and costs. It is possible to propagate numerous numbers of plants within short period of time with low costs from PLBs. Researchers are trying to develop efficient PLBs induction and proliferation techniques using different plant growth regulators, carbon sources, and light emitting diodes. Here, we are discussing about the progress of the PLBs organogenesis in orchids.
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