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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Grazia Maugeri
Definition: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first of which were released in December 2020. Effective vaccines for COVID-19 are needed to protect the population, especially healthcare professionals and fragile individuals, such as older people or chronic-disease-affected patients. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits and assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Duo Wai-Chi Wong
Definition: Table tennis is a popular recreational and competitive sports at all levels. Recent research on table tennis maneuvers identified the differences between playing levels and between maneuvers using parameters which included ball and racket speed, joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography, and plantar pressure distribution. Different maneuvers underlined changes on body posture and lines of movement which were accommodated particularly by the racket face angle, trunk rotation, knee and elbow joint movements, and thus different contributions of muscles. Higher-level players produced ball and strike at higher accuracy and repeatability but not necessarily lead to higher speed. In addition, higher-level players utilize superior whole-body coordination and footwork to compromise between agility and stability for a quality strike. Strengthening shoulder and wrist muscles could enhance the speed of the strike while personalized training shall be considered since motor coordination and adaptation vary among individuals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Christopher Collins
Definition: MSTN is a gene that makes instructions for producing the protein myostatin, a protein that is part of the transforming growth factor beta family (TGFβ). The TGFβ family of proteins control the growth of tissues in the body, myostatin is found nearly exclusively in the skeletal muscles where it is active before and after birth. The protein actually controls skeletal growth by restraining it, preventing muscles becoming excessively large. Current research that surrounds myostatin is based around its potential treatment in muscle wasting disorders, animals that have mutations in the encoding gene MSTN show greater muscle mass, strength and in some circumstances reduced bodyfat, which can be known as myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. This study aimed to see the prevalence of mutations in the male bodybuilder population (n = 92) and if having a mutation had any affect on their muscle size and/or muscle performance. The study which looked at mutation prevalence in rs1805086, arm circumference, pull-up max and push-up max. The results show that 17% (16) of the subject group had one mutation (AG), 83% (76) had the common outcome (AA) and 0% (0) had two mutations (GG). Those with the AG outcome had an average arm circumference of 46.37cmcompared with AA which had an average of 42.02cm. Those with the AG outcome had an average pull-up max score of 21 compared with AA with an average of 12. Those with the AG outcome had an average push-up max of 61 compared with AA with an average of 40. The study clearly shows that those with a mutation are rare, however the mutation does appear to give the subject a performance and size advantage over those with the common outcome.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Mabliny Thuany
Definition: Due to differences in runners’ profiles, which can be related to sociodemographic characteristics, motivations for running can vary.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Nicolas Guérout
Definition: Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent motor, sensitive and sensory deficits. In humans, there is currently no therapy to promote recovery and the only available treatments include surgical intervention to prevent further damage and symptomatic relief of pain and infections in the acute and chronic phases, respectively. Basically, the spinal cord is classically viewed as a nonregenerative tissue with limited plasticity. Thereby the establishment of the “glial” scar which appears within the SCI is mainly described as a hermetic barrier for axon regeneration. However, recent discoveries have shed new light on the intrinsic functional plasticity and endogenous recovery potential of the spinal cord.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Zied Abbes
Definition: The COVID-19 pandemic has had severe effects on communities globally, leading to significant restrictions on all aspects of society, including in sports. Several significant decisions were made to postpone or cancel major swimming events by FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation). Swimmers were no longer allowed to continue their usual training in swimming pools and were confined to their homes. These unusual circumstances may represent a good opportunity to strengthen different areas of swimmer preparation and potentially enhance performance when resuming regular aquatic training.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jan 2021
Definition: Muscular alterations as a consequence of hypoxic situations contribute not only to a decrease in life expectancy but also to a lower quality of life and health status. Our perspective, based on the results of this systematic review, is that Electromyography (EMG) is a suitable tool for monitoring the different skeletal muscle responses and has sufficient sensitivity to detect the muscle changes produced by hypoxic stimuli. Therefore, surface EMG (sEMG) maybe provide a practical point-of-care diagnostic test for medical diagnoses as well as a tool to improve sports performance. integrated EMG (iEMG) studies the physiology and pathology of denervation, re-innervation, and various myopathies. It also analyzes deep musculature such as muscular behavior, temporal activity patterns, fatigue, and muscular activation. sEMG is suitable for providing information about global muscle behavior, temporal activity patterns, muscle fatigue, and the activation level of the superficial musculature.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Yi-Chen Cheng
Definition: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, which relates to not only motor symptoms, but also cognitive, autonomic, and mood impairments. The literature suggests that pharmacological or surgical treatment has a limited effect on providing relief of the symptoms and also restricting its progression. Recently, research on non-pharmacological interventions for people living with PD (pwPD) that alleviate their motor and non-motor features has shown a new aspect in treating this complex disease. Numerous studies are supporting exercise intervention as being effective in both motor and non-motor facets of PD, such as physical functioning, strength, balance, gait speed, and cognitive impairment. Via the lens of the physical profession, this paper strives to provide another perspective for PD treatment by presenting exercise modes categorized by motor and non-motor PD symptoms, along with its effects and mechanisms. Acknowledging that there is no “one size fits all” exercise prescription for such a variable and progressive disease, this review is to outline tailored physical activities as a credible approach in treating pwPD, conceivably enhancing overall physical capacity, ameliorating the symptoms, reducing the risk of falls and injuries, and, eventually, elevating the quality of life. It also provides references and practical prescription applications for the clinician.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Submitted by: José Martínez Sanz
Definition: During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased significantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems like exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), dehydration (DH); the provision of misinformation to athletes about nutrient intake and hydration during competition was identified as the main cause. These problems can affect the performance and health status of the athlete during and post-competition. Several nutritional guidelines have been suggested that can prevent these adverse outcomes, and it is essential to individualize and adjust the nutritional intake and hydration status according to the characteristics of each competition.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 May 2021
Submitted by: Adam Kawczynski
Definition: Knowledge and research about football goalkeeper (GK) injuries are scarce, which prevents the development of evidence-based injury prevention programs. Fortunately, progress is evident in injury prevention strategies in outfield football players. However, a GK fulfills a unique role, and an injured GK can substantially impact a team. Thus, there is a need to clarify and summarize current knowledge concerning football goalkeeper pain and injuries.
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