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Updated time: 29 Mar 2021
Definition: AK is relatively rare among corneal infections, with an estimated prevalence of 1–9 cases per 100,000. However, in Western countries, the incidence of AK has been steadily rising in direct correlation with contact lens wearing, which is the predominant risk factor.
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Definition: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging of the central area of the retina called the macula. It results in a progressive loss of central vision.In western countries, AMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over the age of 50. About 25 to 30 million people suffer from AMD. Due to the aging of the population, this figure could double in the next 35 years.
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Definition: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common irreversible sight-threatening disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the central retina, preferentially involving the retinal photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the Bruch’s membrane (BM), or the choroidal microcirculation in the macular region.
Updated time: 22 Feb 2021
Definition: Wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and itis the leading cause of blindness affecting elderly in the Western world. AMD is a complex disease that has strong associations with the complement system. All three initiating complement pathways may be relevant in CNV formation, but most evidence indicates a major role for the alternative pathway (AP) and for the terminal complement complex, as well as certain complement peptides generated upon complement activation. Since the complement system is associated with AMD and CNV, a complement inhibitor may be a therapeutic option for patients with wAMD. The aim of the review is to (i) reflect on the possible complement targets in the context of wAMD pathology, (ii) investigate the results of prior clinical trials with complement inhibitors for wAMD patients, and (iii) outline important considerations when developing a future strategy for the treatment of wAMD.
Updated time: 11 Dec 2020
Definition: This review summarizes the last findings in Anterior Chamber Angle evaluation, focusing on new instruments and their application to the clinical practice. Special attention will be given to the comparison between these new techniques and traditional slit-lamp gonioscopy.
Updated time: 14 Feb 2021
Definition: Anterior-segment optical-coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is used to assess the iridocorneal angle and its alterations. The introduction of AS-OCT has led to improved assessments of the anatomy of the iridocorneal-angle and diagnoses of several mechanisms of angle closure which often result in raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Continuous advancements in AS-OCT technology and software, along with an extensive research in the field, have resulted in a wide range of possible parameters that may be used to diagnose and follow up on patients with this spectrum of diseases. However, the clinical relevance of such variables needs to be explored thoroughly.
Updated time: 12 Feb 2021
Definition: This review describes the main antioxidant systems of the human eye, with particular emphasis in those expressed in the natural barriers of antioxidant protection, i.e., the ocular surface, the lens, the retina and its retinal pigment epithelium.In addition to superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, peroxiredoxins andselenoproteins, inter alia, metallothioneins (MTs) are considered antioxidant proteins of growinginterest with further cell-mediated functions. The state of the art of MTs, including the isoforms classification, the mainfunctions described to date and the zinc-MT redox cycle as antioxidant defense system arecomprehensively described.
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
Definition: Autophagy is a catabolic process that ensures homeostasis in the cells of our organism. It plays a crucial role in protecting eye cells against oxidative damage and external stress factors. Ocular pathologies of high incidence, such as age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are of multifactorial origin and are associated with genetic, environmental factors, age, and oxidative stress, among others; the latter factor is one of the most influential in ocular diseases, directly affecting the processes of autophagy activity.
Updated time: 12 Feb 2021
Definition: The word cannabineyed refers to endocannabinoid system (ECS) physiology, dysregulation and modulation in the context of ocular and periocular tissues and structures. It derives by placing the word eyeinto the original one, cannabinoid. Specifically, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex regulatory system, highly conserved among vertebrates. It has been widely described in nearly all human tissues. In the eye, the ECS expression has been demonstrated both in the anterior and in the posterior segment. In this context, the ECS is believed to play a pivotal role in the modulation of the local inflammatory state as well as in the regulation of tissue repair and fibrosis, neo-angiogenesis, pain perception, intraocular pressure (IOP) control and neuroprotection.
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Definition: A cataract is an ophthalmic disorder characterized by the opacification of the lens and occurs commonly in older people. Age-related cataract is a significant cause of blindness affecting the quality of life worldwide. An imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant potential of ocular tissue is considered responsible for structural modifications of crystallins, the protein constituents of the lens, which eventually leads to cataracts. Lutein and zeaxanthin are two major carotenoids which are concentrated in the human lens. Many preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence for a protective role of dietary carotenoids in age-related cataracts.