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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: ARUN DHAKAL
Definition: Agroforestry is recognized as a sustainable land use practice. However, the uptake of such a promising land use practice is slow. Through this research, carried out in a Terai district of Nepal, we thoroughly examine what influences farmers’ choice of agroforestry adoption and what discourages the adoption. For this, a total of 288 households were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Two agroforestry practices were compared with conventional agriculture with the help of the Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL) model. The likelihood of adoption was found to be influenced by gender: the male-headed households were more likely to adopt the tree-based farming practice. Having a source of off-farm income was positively associated with the adoption decision of farmers. Area of farmland was found as the major constraint to agroforestry adoption for smallholder farmers. Some other variables that affected positively included livestock herd size, provision of extension service, home-to-forest distance, farmers’ group membership and awareness of farmers about environmental benefits of agroforestry. Irrigation was another adoption constraint that the study area farmers were faced with. The households with a means of transport and with a larger family (household) size were found to be reluctant regarding agroforestry adoption. A collective farming practice could be a strategy to engage the smallholder farmers in agroforestry.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Indu K Murthy
Definition: Agroforestry plays a defining role in offsetting greenhouse gases, providing sustainable livelihoods, localizing Sustainable Development Goals and achieving biodiversity targets.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Yo-Jin Shiau
Definition: Mangrove forest is an important coastal ecosystems for blue carbon. Thus, understanding the carbon dynamic in mangrove forests will help the management the ecosystem with climate changes. many research studies have been quantified the potential C storage in mangrove soil to be about 500Mg C ha−1. However, mangrove also lost about 43.8 Kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 due to its CO2 and CH4 emissions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Daniel Alongi
Definition: The carbon cycle in mangrove ecosystems is an important biogeochemical pathway in understanding the links between this forest ecosystem and both the atmosphere and the adjacent coastal ocean. Mangroves are a major habitat in the coastal zone for storing carbon in the soils of their deep forest floor, and for exporting to adjacent coastal seas significant quantities of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The large export of DIC is sufficient to result in adjacent coastal waters becoming a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Natalia Błaszczyk
Definition: Cinnamon is an unusual tropical plant belonging to the Lauraceae family. It has been used for hundreds of years as a flavor additive, but it has also been used in natural Eastern medicine. Cinnamon extracts are vital oils that contain biologically active compounds, such as cinnamon aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties and is used to treat diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Rajiv Chaudhary
Definition: Development of markers for traits related to tolerance to ash dieback and to investigate whether genotypes selected for tolerance were genetically different from susceptible populations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Stéphane Maury
Definition: Epigenetics refers to a scientific domain studying all the processes affecting the expression of genes and/or the activity of transposable elements (TEs) without altering the DNA sequence that may be heritable by mitosis (during development) and/or meiosis (across generations). Forest trees are sessile, perennial, and modular organisms with complex life cycles that are often challenged by environmental variations such as actual climate changes during their long-lifespan. Surviving tree populations can respond to these environmental changes through complex and interacting mechanisms and notably using epigenetics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Definition: Illegal logging and the associated deforestation have serious consequences for biodiversity, the climate, the economy and society. The EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) prohibits the placing of illegally harvested timber or timber products on the market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the recent evolution of EU imports of these products from the international market, in order to check how the transparency index of the supplying countries’ institutions and tree cover loss have influenced this trajectory. To that end, a panel data model is estimated with 228 observations from 38 exporting countries between 2012 and 2017. The results show that EU timber imports have a direct association with the transparency index and an inverse relationship with tree cover loss; both these relationships are highly significant at the one-percent level. Other significant factors are the performance of the EU construction sector (as a proxy for timber demand) and timber supply. In the short and medium-term, Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) signed between the EU and non-EU timber-producing countries have a negative influence on the supply to EU member states. This study presents an analysis of EU timber imports after the implementation of the EUTR, providing specific conclusions that can inform policymakers’ efforts to foster sustainable forest management.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2020
Submitted by: Richard Hnilica
Definition: The presented article presents an innovative solution of a fire-fighting adapter based on the basic hypothesis: to provide sufficient technical support in difficult terrain conditions for water transport logistics in order to quickly prevent the spread and destruction of forest fire. At present, when forest fires begin, it is often quite complicated to provide sufficient technical support for the quick prevention and elimination of fires. This fact is largely eliminated by the designed fire-fighting adapter. The mentioned fire-fighting adapter can be used as a fire-fighting mobile device with a base machine of a forest wheeled skidder (LKT), part of the long-distance transport of water in difficult terrain (lake system), a water tank in difficult terrain with the possibility of filling the Bambi bag with a helicopter, part of the long-distance transport of water in the case of a difficult water source without a forest access road network, and a mobile device for emergency transportation of materials in difficult terrain. In addition to the use for fighting forest fires, the fire adapter can also be used to provide for transport of water for forest nurseries (irrigation), freshly planted areas in the event of prolonged drought, the filling of watering-places for forest animals and filling puddles in the dry season. When designing the supporting frame, we used and imitated the evolutionary approach of nature in the form of generative design. The presented paper deals with the use of modern composite materials in the design of superstructures for base machines, which gradually acquire meaning. The main reason for the increasing use of fiberglass is to achieve higher strength and safer weight reduction. This adapter is designed for forest wheel tractors that reach 40% slope availability, areable to work on the stand area, overcome obstacles and are available in sufficient quantities in all Slovak forest areas.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Abdelwahab Bessaad
Definition: Forest biomass is a sustainable source of renewable energy and a valuable alternative to finite fossil fuels. However, its overharvesting may lead to soil nutrient depletion and threaten future stand productivity, as well as affect the habitat for biodiversity.
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