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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Kazuyuki Nakagome
Definition: For asthma, allergen immunotherapy using house dust mite (HDM) improves clinical symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness and decreases drug requirements. Furthermore, it has been suggested that allergen immunotherapy also has the following effects: (1) the effect can be maintained for more than a year even if the treatment is terminated, (2) the remission rate of childhood asthma can be increased, (3) new allergen sensitization can be suppressed, and (4) asthma development can be prevented if allergen immunotherapy was performed in the case of pollinosis. Allergen immunotherapy differs from conventional drug therapy, in particular the effect of modifying the natural course of allergic diseases and the effect of controlling complicated allergic diseases such as rhinoconjunctivitis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Yuman Lee
Definition: Beta-lactam antibiotics are considered a first-line therapy in many bacterial infections and include agents such as penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems. However, beta-lactam antibiotics are a common cause of adverse drug reactions and are associated with high rates of antibiotic allergy. Unverified beta-lactam allergies are a substantial public health problem, as the majority of patients labeled as beta-lactam allergic do not have clinically significant allergies that may hinder the use beta-lactam therapy when indicated. Outdated or inaccurate beta-lactam or penicillin allergies can result in serious consequences, including suboptimal antibiotic therapy, increased risk of adverse effects, and use of broader spectrum antibiotics than indicated, which may contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Naser Alsharairi
Definition: A large gap still exists in our knowledge of the effects of dietary supplements on lung cancer risk/mortality in asthmatic smokers and nonsmokers. There is a lack of reliable studies for detecting such an effect says a researcher in the journal Nutrients [1]. The researcher undertook a comprehensive review of studies on the topic, and is now calling for trials and studies of these supplements to detect their benefits and harms. The best way to reduce lung cancer risk is to get those at greatest risk of lung cancer (active and passive smokers, particularly those with asthma) to stop smoking or reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. In industrial societies, airborne environmental pollutants are also risk factors. [1] Alsharairi, N. The effects of dietary supplements on Asthma and Lung Cancer risk in smokers and non-smokers: A review of the literature. Nutrients, 2019, 11, 725.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Definition: B cells are key players in this relationship because activated and differentiated B cells produce secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), which binds commensal bacteria to preserve a healthy microbial ecosystem.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Yang Wang
Definition: Biofilms are aggregates formed as a protective survival state by microorganisms to adapt to the environment and can be resistant to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses due to chemical or physical diffusion barriers, modified nutrient environments, suppression of the growth rate within biofilms, and the genetic adaptation of cells within biofilms. With the widespread use of medical devices, medical device-associated biofilms continue to pose a serious threat to human health, and these biofilms have become the most important source of nosocomial infections. However, traditional antimicrobial agents cannot completely eliminate medical device-associated biofilms. New strategies for the treatment of these biofilms and targeting biofilm infections are urgently required. Several novel approaches have been developed and identified as effective and promising treatments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jun 2021
Definition: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is considered to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and electromechanical dissociation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Gerit Theil
Definition: Many different therapies are applied to fight tumor disease. Blood-based biosources, like circulating tumor cells (CTCs), offer the opportunity to monitor the healing progression and the real-time response to the therapy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Jose Laerte Boechat
Definition: A more robust innate immunity and lower ACE-2 receptors expression underlies a lower severity of COVID-19 in children. Moreover, diverse studies suggest that children with asthma do not appear to be disproportionately more affected by COVID-19. This review address the lower severity of COVID-19 in children and the relationships with asthma, atopy and obesity.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Feb 2021
Submitted by: ALBERTO FALCHETTI
Definition: It is well consolidated thata common mesenchymal cell progenitor shared by bone, skeletal muscle,and adipocytes cell progenitors exists. Thismakes the role of the skeleton in energy metabolism no longersurprising. Moreover, it also suggests that bone fragility could also be seen as a consequence of a “poor” quality in nutrition. Despite of the fact that ketogenic diet has been proven to be effective in epilepsy, long-term follow-up studieson epileptic children undergoing ketogenic diet reported an increased incidence of bone fracturesand decreased bone mineral density too. However, the causes of such negative impacts on bone healthhave to be better defined. More recently,shorter-terms, or repeated cyclically for more or less short periods, KDsare used also in patients affected byT2DM, obesity, PCOS and so on.While possible correlations betweenKD and bone health were at least conceivable in children, it remains unclear whetherthe KD effects on bone health may be different in adults. Only fewclinical studies have been adequately designed to investigate bonehealth are scarce and bone health related aspects, so far. A narrative review onthis issue, together practical advice on designing and implementing clinical studies on ketogenic nutritionalregimens and bone health outcomes, is provided.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Definition: The increasing prevalence and severity of pediatric food allergies (FA) demands innovative preventive and therapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence suggests a pivotal role for the gut microbiome in modulating susceptibility to FA. Studies have demonstrated that alteration of gut microbiome could precede FA, and that particular microbial community structures early in life could influence also the disease course. The identification of gut microbiome features in pediatric FA patients is driving new prevention and treatment approaches.
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