Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gizem Gulfidan
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths related to late diagnosis, poor survival rates, and high incidence of metastasis.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mauro Maccarrone
Definition: Gynaecological cancers can be primary neoplasms, originating either from the reproductive tract or the products of conception, or secondary neoplasms, representative of metastatic disease. For some of these cancers, the exact causes are unknown; however, it is recognised that the precise aetiopathogeneses for most are multifactorial and include exogenous (such as diet) and endogenous factors (such as genetic predisposition), which mutually interact in a complex manner. One factor that has been recognised to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of gynaecological cancers is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists of endocannabinoids (bioactive lipids), their receptors, and metabolic enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Kanwal Mahmood
Definition: One-carbon (1-C) metabolism is essential for numerous cancer cell functions, including protein and nucleic acid synthesis and maintaining cellular redox balance, and inhibition of the 1-C pathway has yielded several highly active drugs, such as methotrexate and 5-FU.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 12 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Piotr Swiatek
Definition: Compounds containing the 1,2,4-triazole ring in their structure are characterised by multidirectional biological activity.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Beow Keat Yap
Definition: 14-3-3σ is an acidic homodimer protein with more than one hundred different protein partners associated with oncogenic signaling and cell cycle regulation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 01 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Hui Min Neoh
Definition: The 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved in all bacteria (and also archaea). Nonetheless, it contains nine hypervariable regions (V1 - V9), where sequences of these regions can be used to identify and discriminate bacterial genus, sometimes until the species level. This makes the gene a useful tool for phylogenetic studies. With the introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16SNGS) has allowed profiling of bacterial communities found in organisms and the environment, and lead to the discovery of many previously unculturable members of the bacteria kingdom.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ilaria Roato
Definition: Every year, approximately a couple of million bone grafts are performed worldwide to treat bone lesions, of which about 1 million only in Europe, thus bone regeneration is necessary to replace the damaged tissue, while the improvement of bone healing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is mandatory. Bone tissue is constituted by cells with functions carefully coordinated, and a complex cross-talk between bone forming and inflammatory cells is known to guide successful regeneration, thus repairing bone is not an easy task. Autografts are still considered the gold standard for repairing bone defects, although they are not without significant drawbacks, such as donor site availability and possible morbidity. To overcome the pitfalls of grafts, researchers relied on bone tissue engineering (BTE) and 3D bioprinting techniques to produce cell-laden scaffolds, in which bone biological components are assembled to form a 3D environment. Several techniques of bone bioprinting have been developed: inkjet, extrusion and light-based 3D printers, which use different bioinks, i.e., the printing materials.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Po-Yi Li
Definition: 3D models of cancer primarily refer to patient-derived xenografts, spheroids, and organoids and have been established for a variety of cancer types, including lung cancer. 3D lung cancer models have been demonstrated to more accurately model patient cancers and have the potential to advance basic, translational, and clinical studies.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Riccardo Rizzo
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is an extremely lethal malignancy with a survival rate lower than any other cancer type. For decades, two-dimensional (2D) cultures have been the cornerstone for studying cancer cell biology and drug testing, due to their simplicity and cost. However, their inability to reconstitute the tumor architecture, the absence of nutrient and oxygen supply gradients, as well as the lack of appropriate mechano-forces that mimic the extracellular microenvironment, make them an inadequate model to accurately reproduce tissue level-specific characteristics. Bioengineering systems, such as three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific models, are progressively emerging as systems better able to mimic the biology of pancreatic tumors and to test new anticancer therapies, as they more efficiently recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment characteristic of pancreatic tumors.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Soon Hee Kim
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 194