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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Gizem Gulfidan
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths related to late diagnosis, poor survival rates, and high incidence of metastasis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Mauro Maccarrone
Definition: Gynaecological cancers can be primary neoplasms, originating either from the reproductive tract or the products of conception, or secondary neoplasms, representative of metastatic disease. For some of these cancers, the exact causes are unknown; however, it is recognised that the precise aetiopathogeneses for most are multifactorial and include exogenous (such as diet) and endogenous factors (such as genetic predisposition), which mutually interact in a complex manner. One factor that has been recognised to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of gynaecological cancers is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists of endocannabinoids (bioactive lipids), their receptors, and metabolic enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Kanwal Mahmood
Definition: One-carbon (1-C) metabolism is essential for numerous cancer cell functions, including protein and nucleic acid synthesis and maintaining cellular redox balance, and inhibition of the 1-C pathway has yielded several highly active drugs, such as methotrexate and 5-FU.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Piotr Swiatek
Definition: Compounds containing the 1,2,4-triazole ring in their structure are characterised by multidirectional biological activity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Beow Keat Yap
Definition: 14-3-3σ is an acidic homodimer protein with more than one hundred different protein partners associated with oncogenic signaling and cell cycle regulation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Hui Min Neoh
Definition: The 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved in all bacteria (and also archaea). Nonetheless, it contains nine hypervariable regions (V1 - V9), where sequences of these regions can be used to identify and discriminate bacterial genus, sometimes until the species level. This makes the gene a useful tool for phylogenetic studies. With the introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16SNGS) has allowed profiling of bacterial communities found in organisms and the environment, and lead to the discovery of many previously unculturable members of the bacteria kingdom.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ayse T. Kendi
Definition: 177Lu-PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) therapy is used for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Although there are some different approaches regarding the use of 177Lu-PSMA therapy in different countries, this type of therapy is generally safe, with a low toxicity profile. From the oncological point of view, a PSA (prostate specific antigen) decline of ≥50% was seen in 10.6–69% of patients with mCRPC; whereas progression-free survival (PFS) was reported to be 3–13.7 months in different studies. Consequently, 177Lu-PSMA therapy is a promising treatment in patients with mCRPC, with good clinical efficacy, even in heavily pretreated patients with multiple lines of systemic therapy. Currently, there are ongoing clinical trials in the United States, including a phase III multicenter FDA registration trial.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Aida Sabaté-Llobera
Definition: PET (positron emission tomography) is a noninvasive functional imaging technique based on the detection of photons resulting from the annihilation of positrons emitted by a radioactive substance known as radiotracer or radiopharmaceutical. PET equipments usually incorporate a computed tomography scanner (PET/CT) in order to obtain hybrid functional-anatomical images. Different radiotracers are used to study different physiologic processes, such as blood flow, bone turnover or expression of certain cell receptors. The most common radiotracer used in clinical practice is 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG), a glucose analogue binded to a radioactive isotope of fluor that informs about glucose metabolism in the body. As cancer cells have high energy requirements (and, therefore, high glucose consumption), this radiotracer is mostly used to evaluate oncologic processes (disease extension, response to treatment, etc.). However, some types of cancer have low 2-[18F]FDG uptake (e.g., well-differentiated or slow-growing neoplasms), and others can have a variable uptake due to the action of certain enzymes in the metabolic route of glucose (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma).
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Others
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Sazan Rasul
Abstract: The [177Lu]Lu-PSMA radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) has emerged as a successful treatment option in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ilaria Roato
Definition: Every year, approximately a couple of million bone grafts are performed worldwide to treat bone lesions, of which about 1 million only in Europe, thus bone regeneration is necessary to replace the damaged tissue, while the improvement of bone healing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is mandatory. Bone tissue is constituted by cells with functions carefully coordinated, and a complex cross-talk between bone forming and inflammatory cells is known to guide successful regeneration, thus repairing bone is not an easy task. Autografts are still considered the gold standard for repairing bone defects, although they are not without significant drawbacks, such as donor site availability and possible morbidity. To overcome the pitfalls of grafts, researchers relied on bone tissue engineering (BTE) and 3D bioprinting techniques to produce cell-laden scaffolds, in which bone biological components are assembled to form a 3D environment. Several techniques of bone bioprinting have been developed: inkjet, extrusion and light-based 3D printers, which use different bioinks, i.e., the printing materials.
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