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Submitted by: Jaime Feliu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer death in the elderly. The older patients constitute a heterogeneous group in terms of functional status, comorbidities, and aging-related conditions. Therefore, therapeutic decisions need to be individualized. Frailty is a complex, multidimensional, and cyclical state of decreased physiological reserve resulting in a reduced capacity for adaptation and adaptability and greater vulnerability to stressors. The adverse health outcomes associated with frailty are summarized in disability and functional dependence, cognitive deterioration, increased hospitalization and institutionalization, intolerance to chemotherapy, instability of comorbidities, social exclusion, and decreased survival.
Submitted by: Filippo Avogaro
Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked recessive chorioretinal dystrophy caused by mutations involving the CHM gene. Gene therapy has entered late-phase clinical trials, although there have been variable results.
Submitted by: Mariko Ishibashi
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors are expressed on various immune cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In immune cells, most SLAM family molecules bind to themselves to transmit co-stimulatory signals through the recruiting adaptor proteins SLAM-associated protein (SAP) or Ewing’s sarcoma-associated transcript 2 (EAT-2), which target immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs in the cytoplasmic regions of the receptors. Notably, SLAMF2, SLAMF3, SLAMF6, and SLAMF7 are strongly and constitutively expressed on MM cells that do not express the adaptor proteins SAP and EAT-2.
Submitted by: Ani-Simona Sevastre
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification is a characteristic of the classical subtype of glioma.
Submitted by: Marina Bantulà Fonts
Asthma is a common chronic airway disease characterized by variable airflow limitation resulting from the combination of airway narrowing, airway hypersensitivity, airway wall thickening, and increased mucus hypersecretion. Airway narrowing results from both chronic inflammation and airway remodeling. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with several distinct clinical presentations (phenotypes) and complex pathophysiological mechanisms (endotypes) [1]. Obesity is the consequence of an excessive body fat accumulation due to an imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure [2]. Diagnosis of obesity is usually established by assessing the body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2.
Submitted by: Deog-Hwan Oh
As the situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still de-teriorating, there has been a huge increase in the demand and use of disinfectants. Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years.
Submitted by: Jadwiga Jaruzelska
Until recently, post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR), in contrast to transcriptional regulation, was not extensively explored in cancer, even though it seems to be highly important. PUM proteins are well described in the PTGR of several organisms and contain the PUF RNA-binding domain that recognizes the UGUANAUA motif, located mostly in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of target mRNAs. Depending on the protein cofactors recruited by PUM proteins, target mRNAs are directed towards translation, repression, activation, degradation, or specific localization. Abnormal profiles of PUM expression have been shown in several types of cancer, in some of them being different for PUM1 and PUM2. 
Submitted by: Chaojun Tang
Besides their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, it has become increasingly clear that platelets are also involved in many other pathological processes of the vascular system, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease, which preferentially develops at sites under disturbed blood flow with low speeds and chaotic directions. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are all risk factors for atherosclerosis. When the vascular microenvironment changes, platelets can respond quickly to interact with endothelial cells and leukocytes, participating in atherosclerosis.
Submitted by: Maria A. Poca
In the past decade, there has been a clear trend towards better outcomes in patients with hydro-cephalus, especially those with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). This is partly due to the availability of more sophisticated hardware and a better understanding of implants. However, there is little evidence to show the superiority of a specific type of valve over another. The most commonly reported consequence of hydrodynamic mismatch is shunt over-drainage. Simple dif-ferential pressure valves, with a fixed opening pressure or even adjustable valves, lead to non-physiologic intraventricular pressure (IVP) as soon as the patient moves into an upright pos-ture. These valves fail to maintain IVP within physiological limits due to the changes in hydro-static pressure in the drainage system. To solve this problem more complex third-generation hy-drostatic valves have been designed. These gravitational devices aim to reduce flow through a shunt system when the patient is upright but there are important technical differences between them.
Submitted by: andrea de pascalis
Mucosal melanoma is a rare tumor with aggressive biological behavior and poor prognosis. Diagnosis is often performed at an advanced stage when the lesions become symptomatic. Although dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are widely used techniques for the diagnosis of cutaneous tumors, their use for mucosal lesions is not well established, probably because the latter are rarer.
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