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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Hui Min Neoh
Definition: The 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved in all bacteria (and also archaea). Nonetheless, it contains nine hypervariable regions (V1 - V9), where sequences of these regions can be used to identify and discriminate bacterial genus, sometimes until the species level. This makes the gene a useful tool for phylogenetic studies. With the introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16SNGS) has allowed profiling of bacterial communities found in organisms and the environment, and lead to the discovery of many previously unculturable members of the bacteria kingdom.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Definition: Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges for the clinical sector and industry, environment and societal development. One of the most important pathogens responsible for severe nosocomial infections isAcinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative bacterium from the Moraxellaceae family, due to its various resistance mechanisms.The enormous adaptive capacity ofA. baumanniiand the acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants contribute to the ineffectiveness of most current therapeutic strategies, including last-line or combined antibiotic therapy. In this review, we will present the current progress in developing innovative strategies for combating multidrug-resistantA. baumannii(MDRAB) infections.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Valeria Blanda
Definition: Interactions between tick-borne pathogenic hemoparasites and different host effector mechanisms of T- and/or B cell-mediated adaptive immunity, involved in the late and long-lasting protective immune response.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Pablo C. Baldi
Definition: A central aspect of Brucella pathogenicity is its ability to invade, survive, and replicate in diverse phagocytic and non-phagocytic cell types, leading to chronic infections and chronic inflammatory phenomena. Adhesion to the target cell is a critical first step in the invasion process. Several Brucella adhesins have been shown to mediate adhesion to cells, extracellular matrix components (ECM), or both. These include the sialic acid-binding proteins SP29 and SP41, the BigA and BigB proteins that contain an Ig-like domain, the monomeric autotransporters BmaA, BmaB, and BmaC, the trimeric autotransporters BtaE and BtaF, and Bp26.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Toru Yoshida
Definition: ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) are a well-known type of bacterial toxin. They transfer an ADP-ribose moiety from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) onto a target protein to generate an ADP-ribosylated protein and nicotinamide. The bulky and negatively charged ADP-ribose moiety affects the protein function by sterically blocking interactions with partner molecules, inducing conformational changes, or creating docking sites for new interaction partners.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Brijesh Tiwari
Definition: Air is recognized as an important source of microbial contamination in food production facilities and has the potential to contaminate the food product causing food safety and spoilage issues for the food industry. Potential for aerial microbial contamination of food can be a particular issue during storage in cold rooms when the food is not packaged and is exposed to contaminated air over a prolonged period. Thus, there are potential benefits for the food industry for an aerial decontamination in cold storage facilities. It is considered that current systems may not be completely effective and environmentally friendly, therefore, it is of great significance to consider the development of nonresidual and verified decontamination technologies for the food industry and, in particular, for the cold storage rooms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Oct 2020
Submitted by: María José Figueras
Definition: It is well known that correct identification of recovered Aeromonas strains at the genus and species level is a complex process. Biochemical or phenotypic identification tests and specially those included in miniaturized and/or semi-automatic commercial identification systems (API, Vitek, BBLCrystal, MicroScan etc) produce confusion with the Vibrio genus and an erroneous overestimation of thespecies Aeromonas hydrophila. Correct identification requires the use of molecular techniques, like the detection of the gene that encode for the GCAT (glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase) that can discriminate the genus or the analysis of the sequences of housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, etc) to correctly identifying the species. The latter genes are necessary because the 16S rRNA gene does not show enough resolution to discriminate closely related species (i.e. A. salmonicida from A. bestiarum). In fact many new species were discovered thanks to the use of gyrB and rpoD genes for identification, and the construction of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis with the concatenated sequences of five housekeeping genes was used as a tool in their descriptions.The progress in the techniques used to obtain bacteria genomes had an spectacular impact on the genus Aeromonas because the genome of the type strain of the different species are available at the GenBank. Tools developed for bacterial identification based on the comparison of genomes like the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and the Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) provides objective criteria to define if two genomes belong or not to the same species.This review aims to guide microbiologists in the correct identification of the Aeromonas spp.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Tsiry Rasamiravaka
Definition: Antivirulence is the concept of blocking virulence factors produced by pathogenic organism. In regards to bacteria, the idea is to design agents that block virulence rather than kill bacteria population that generate more selective pressure leading to antibiotic resistance. African plants, through their huge biodiversity, present a considerable reservoir of secondary metabolites with a very broad spectrum of biological activities, a potential source of natural products targeting such non-microbicidal mechanisms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Heinz D. Osiewacz
Definition: Podospora anserina is a filamentous fungus that, in contrast to most other fungi, is characterized by a defined limited lifespan. Already in the 1950s it was reported that this ascomycete develops a well-defined senescence syndrome. Depending on the strain, this syndrome occurs after a defined short period of growth (e.g., after 2–3 weeks): the pigmentation of the peripheral part of the thallus increases while the growth rate decreases until it comes to a complete stop and the thallus dies at the growth front. The molecular basis of aging of P. anserina have been carefully investigated over more than 60 years of research and a network of pathways and their interactions have been uncovered.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Aarti Krishnan
Definition: The review covers the current knowledge on the presence of amino acid biosynthesis and uptake within the Apicomplexa phylum, focusing on human-infecting pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. Given the complex multi-host lifecycle of these pathogens, we hypothesize that amino acids are made, rather than acquired, depending on the host niche. We summarize the stage-specificities of the biosynthesis enzymes, the role of amini acid transporters and the relevance of amino acids for parasite pathogenesis in vivo.
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