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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Yves SY Hsieh
Definition: (1,3;1,4)-β-D-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Piotr Swiatek
Definition: Compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in their structure are characterised by multidirectional biological activity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Hyun-Jae Shin
Definition: Quercetin is a well-known plant flavonol and antioxidant; however, there has been some debate regarding the efficacy and safety of native quercetin as a skin-whitening agent via tyrosinase inhibition. Several researchers have synthesized quercetin derivatives as low-toxicity antioxidants and whitening agents. However, no suitable quercetin derivatives have been reported to date. In this study, a novel quercetin derivative was synthesized by the SN2 reaction using quercetin and oleyl bromide. The relationship between the structures and activities of quercetin derivatives as anti-melanogenic agents was assessed using in vitro enzyme kinetics, molecular docking, and quenching studies; cell line experiments; and in vivo zebrafish model studies. Novel 3,7-dioleylquercetin (OQ) exhibited a low cytotoxic concentration level at >100 µg/mL (125 µM), which is five times less toxic than native quercetin.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Georgia Pennarossa
Definition: Bi-dimensional culture systems have represented the most used method to study cell biology outside the body for over a century. Although they convey useful information, such systems may lose tissue-specific architecture, biomechanical effectors, and biochemical cues deriving from the native extracellular matrix, with significant alterations in several cellular functions and processes. Notably, the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) platforms that are able to re-create in vitro the structures of the native tissue, have overcome some of these issues, since they better mimic the in vivo milieu and reduce the gap between the cell culture ambient and the tissue environment. 3D culture systems are currently used in a broad range of studies, from cancer and stem cell biology, to drug testing and discovery.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by:Van-An Duong
Definition: Three-dimensional liquid chromatography (3D-LC) is the consecutive combination of 3 independent LC techniques to decrease the complexity of proteome digest samples. 3D-LC systems can be performed in an online or offline manner. Ideally, each dimension in a 3D-LC system is completely orthogonal to the others.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Definition: The ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system is one of the main challenges we confront in the fight against cancer. Multiple strategies have been developed to counteract this situation, including the use of immunostimulant molecules that play a key role in the anti-tumor immune response. Such a response needs to be tumor-specific to cause as little damage as possible to healthy cells and also to track and eliminate disseminated tumor cells. Therefore, the combination of immunostimulant molecules and tumor-associated antigens has been implemented as an anti-tumor therapy strategy to eliminate the main obstacles confronted in conventional therapies. The immunostimulant 4-1BBL belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and it has been widely reported as the most effective member for activating lymphocytes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Ning Liu
Definition: Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a metabolite of tryptophan and is reported to modulate the development and neurogenesis of the enteric nervous system, gut motility, secretion, inflammation, sensation, and epithelial development. Approximately 95% of 5-HT in the body is synthesized and secreted by enterochromaffin (EC) cells, the most common type of neuroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, through sensing signals from the intestinal lumen and the circulatory system. Gut microbiota, nutrients, and hormones are the main factors that play a vital role in regulating 5-HT secretion by EC cells. Apart from being an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine signaling molecule in the gut, gut-derived 5-HT was also shown to exert other biological functions (in autism and depression) far beyond the gut. Moreover, studies conducted on the regulation of 5-HT in the immune system demonstrated that 5-HT exerts anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects on the gut by binding to different receptors under intestinal inflammatory conditions. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms through which 5-HT participates in cell metabolism and physiology can provide potential therapeutic strategies for treating intestinal diseases. Herein, we review recent evidence to recapitulate the mechanisms of synthesis, secretion, regulation, and biofunction of 5-HT to improve the nutrition and health of humans.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Wen-Li Hsu
Definition: Human breast milk lipids have major beneficial effects: they promote infant early brain development, growth and health. To identify the relationship between human breast milk lipids and infant neurodevelopment, multivariate analyses that combined lipidomics and psychological Bayley-III scales evaluation were utilized.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Hang-Long Li
Definition: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), which is also known as ap2 or FABP4, is a fatty acid chaperone that has been further defined as a fat-derived hormone. It regulates lipid homeostasis and is a key mediator of inflammation. Circulating levels of A-FABP are closely associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases with imminent diagnostic and prognostic significance. Numerous animal studies have elucidated the potential underlying mechanisms involving A-FABP in these diseases. Recent studies demonstrated its physiological role in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis and its pathological roles in ischemic stroke and liver fibrosis. Due to its implication in various diseases, A-FABP has become a promising target for the development of small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies for disease treatment. This review summarizes the clinical and animal findings of A-FABP in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases in recent years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Federica Cherchi
Definition: Adenosine is a signalling molecule which, by activating specific membrane receptors, acts as an important player during brain insults such as ischemia. or demyelinating injuries. Here we review data in the literature describing A2B receptor-mediated effects in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia and myelination that point to A2B receptor ligands as putative therapeutic targets for the still unmet treatment of stroke or demyelinating diseases.
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