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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Hang-Long Li
Definition: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), which is also known as ap2 or FABP4, is a fatty acid chaperone that has been further defined as a fat-derived hormone. It regulates lipid homeostasis and is a key mediator of inflammation. Circulating levels of A-FABP are closely associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases with imminent diagnostic and prognostic significance. Numerous animal studies have elucidated the potential underlying mechanisms involving A-FABP in these diseases. Recent studies demonstrated its physiological role in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis and its pathological roles in ischemic stroke and liver fibrosis. Due to its implication in various diseases, A-FABP has become a promising target for the development of small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies for disease treatment. This review summarizes the clinical and animal findings of A-FABP in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases in recent years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Franziska Hornung
Definition: The alterations of adipocyte-derived signal mediators strongly influence the regulation of inflammation, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Eva Karaskova
Definition: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), chronic inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Mark Evans
Definition: We live and to do so we must breathe and eat, so are we a combination of what we eat and breathe? Here we will consider this question, and the role in this respect of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to central regulation of feeding and food choice. We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. If this is the case, then aberrant cell-specific changes in the expression of AMPK subunit isoforms could give rise, in part, to known associations between a wide variety of conditions associated with metabolic disorder.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Markéta Šimková
Definition: Androgens represent the main hormones responsible for maintaining hormonal balance and function in the prostate and testis. As they are involved in prostate and testicular carcinogenesis, more detailed information of their active concentration at the site of action is required. Since the introduction of the term intracrinology as the local formation of active steroid hormones from inactive precursors of the adrenal gland, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-S, it is evident that blood circulating levels of sex steroid hormones need not reflect their actual concentrations in the tissue.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Amanda St Paul
Definition: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western and developing world, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing with the longer lifespan afforded by our modern lifestyle. Vascular diseases including coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke comprise the majority of cardiovascular disease and therefore represent a significant medical and socioeconomic burden on our society. It is not be surprising that these conditions overlap and potentiate each other when we consider the many cellular and molecular similarities between them. At the molecular level, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is the target, integrator, and effector cell of both atherogenic and the major effector protein of the hypertensive signal, Angiotensin II (Ang II). Together, these signals can potentiate each other and prime the artery and exacerbate hypertension and atherosclerosis. Therefore, VSMC are the fulcrum in progression of these diseases and therefore, understanding the effects of atherogenic stimuli and Ang II on VSMC is key to understanding and treating atherosclerosis and hypertension. In this review, we will examine studies in which hypertension and atherosclerosis intersect on the VSMC, and illustrate common pathways between these two diseases and vascular aging.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Definition: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic multifactorial pathology and a current and essential challenge for public health, with a negative impact on the geriatric patient’s quality of life.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Jayarama Gunaje
Definition: Aspirin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is routinely used in decreasing inflammation, pain, fever and cardiovascular diseases. Aspirin has recently been recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancers (CRC) in adults aged above 59 yrs by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Though acknowledged for its ability to decrease incidences of CRC, a consensus has not yet been reached regarding the mechanisms involved in its chemopreventive actions. Here, we briefly describe the "metabolite hypothesis", discuss its strengths and limitations and provide our perspective.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Jan Jakubík
Definition: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins that convey extracellular signals to the cellular milieu. They represent a target for more than 30% of currently marketed drugs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: George Chaldakov
Definition: Abstract: Studies over the past 30 years have revealed that adipose tissue is the major endocrine and paracrine organ of the human body. Arguably, adiopobiology has taken its reasonable place in studying obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is viewed herein as a neurometabolic disorder. The pathogenesis and therapy of these diseases are multiplex at basic, clinical and translational levels. Our present goal is to describe new developments in cardiometabolic and neurometabolic adipobiology. Accordingly, we focus on adipose- and/or skeletal muscle-derived signaling proteins (adipsin, adiponectin, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neuroptrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, irisin, sirtuins, Klotho, neprilysin, follistatin-like protein-1, meteorin-like (metrnl), as well as growth differentiation factor 11) as examples of metabotrophic factors (MTFs) implicated in the pathogenesis and therapy of obesity and related CMDs. We argue that these pathologies are MTF-deficient diseases. In 1993 the “vascular hypothesis of AD” was published and in the present review we propose the “vasculometabolic hypothesis of AD.” We discuss how MTFs could bridge CMDs and neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. Greater insights on how to manage the MTF network would provide benefits to the quality of human life.
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