Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Eric Gottwald
Definition: Bioreactors have proven useful for a vast amount of applications. Besides classical large-scale bioreactors and fermenters for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, micro-bioreactors, as specialized bioreactor systems, have become an invaluable tool for mammalian 3D cell cultures.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Guillermo Bordanaba
Definition: The 3D cell cultures allow cells to growth and interact between them and with the extracellular matrix in three dimensions. This conforms a culture structure closer to physiological conditions than the cell monolayers (2D) traditionally employed in cell biology, and it can be achieved by using extracellular matrix hydrogels derived from decellularized tissues, bio-printed scaffolds made of different materials, or by forcing the cells to interact between each other without physical support. 3D culture models provide a powerful tool to understand cell-to-cell interactions when used in co-cultures, and to determine the involvement of extracellular vesicles as major key interactors in cellular crosstalk.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Jaqueline Loaeza
Definition: The human genome has additional regulation layers for the regulation of transcription. The DNA methylation is a key epigenetic process that sharp in functional regions in the genome. The 5-methylcytosine patterns in promoter regions are related to gene expression regulation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Alessandro Carrer
Definition: The carcinogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) progresses according tomulti-step evolution, whereby the disease acquires increasingly aggressive pathological features.Lineage-tracing experiments demonstrated that pancreatic cancerous lesionsoriginate from acinar cells, a highly specialized cell type in the pancreatic epithelium. Acinar cells are polarized, pyramidal-shaped cells containing numerous acidophilic granules near the apical side. Those granules contain inactive proteases, which are activated and released into the tubular network upon activation. Primary acinarcells can survive in vitro as organoid-like 3D spheroids, which can transdifferentiate into cellswith a clear ductal morphology in response to different cell- and non-cell-autonomous stimuli.This event, termed acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, recapitulates the histological and molecular featuresof disease initiation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Judith Blaine
Definition: Proteinuria is one of the hallmarks of kidney disease. Serum proteins such as albumin are prevented from being filtered into the urine by the glomerular filtration barrier of which podocytes are a key part. Podocyte structure and function are dependent on maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton in podocyte foot processes. Foot processes contain two structural and signaling hubs: the slit diaphragm and focal adhesions, both of which maintain foot process integrity and relay signals to and from the podocyte exterior in response to hemodynamic changes. The entry below describes the key components of foot process actin cytoskeleton structure and regulation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Adenosine is a purine nucleoside, resulting from the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Under adverse conditions, including hypoxia, ischemia, inflammation, or cancer, the extracellular levels of adenosine increase significantly. Once released, adenosine activates cellular signaling pathways through the engagement of the four known G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine A1 receptor subtype (A1), A2A, A2B, and A3. These receptors, expressed virtually on all immune cells, mitigate all aspects of immune/inflammatory responses. These immunosuppressive effects contribute to blunt the exuberant inflammatory responses, shielding cells, and tissues from an excessive immune response and immune-mediated damage.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 16 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Mohamed Al-Sayegh
Definition: Adipose tissue is contemplated as a dynamic organ that plays key roles in the human body. Adipogenesis is the process by which adipocytes develop from adipose-derived stem cells to form the adipose tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells’ differentiation serves well beyond the simple goal of producing new adipocytes. Indeed, with the current immense biotechnological advances, the most critical role of adipose-derived stem cells remains their tremendous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. This entry focuses on examining the physiological importance of adipogenesis, the current approaches that are employed to model this tightly controlled phenomenon, and the crucial role of adipogenesis in elucidating the pathophysiology and potential treatment modalities of human diseases. The future of adipogenesis is centered around its crucial role in regenerative and personalized medicine.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jun 2021
Submitted by: MARIA Rosa Ciriolo
Definition: Forkhead box O class proteins (FoxOs) are expressed nearly in all tissues and are involved in different functions such as energy metabolism, redox homeostasis and differentiation. The plasticity of FoxOs is demonstrated by post-translational modifications that determine diverse levels of transcriptional regulations also controlled by their subcellular localization. Among the different members of the FoxO family, we focused on FoxO1 in adipose tissue, where it is abundantly expressed and is involved in differentiation and transdifferentiation processes. The capability of FoxO1 to respond differently in dependence of adipose tissue subtype underlines the specific involvement of the transcription factor in energy metabolism and the “browning” process of adipocytes. FoxO1 can localize to nuclear, cytoplasm, and mitochondrial compartments of adipocytes responding to different availability of nutrients and source of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jun 2021
Definition: With advancing aging, a decline in physical abilities occurs, leading to reduced mobility and loss of independence. Although many factors contribute to the physio-pathological effects of aging, an important event seems to be related to the compromised integrity of the neuromuscular system, which connects the brain and skeletal muscles via motoneurons and the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). NMJs undergo severe functional, morphological, and molecular alterations during aging and ultimately degenerate. The effect of this decline is an inexorable decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, a condition generally known as sarcopenia. Moreover, several studies have highlighted how the age-related alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis can contribute to changes in the neuromuscular junction morphology and stability, leading to the reduction in fiber number and innervation. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of epigenetic modifications in age-dependent alterations of the NMJ. In particular, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA-dependent gene expression represent the major epigenetic mechanisms that play a crucial role in NMJ remodeling. It is established that environmental and lifestyle factors, such as physical exercise and nutrition that are susceptible to change during aging, can modulate epigenetic phenomena and attenuate the age-related NMJs changes.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Yanhua Wang
Definition: Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal cortex. Its major renal effect is to regulate electrolyte and water homeostasis in the distal tubule, thus maintaining blood pressure and extracellular fluid homeostasis through the activation of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in epithelial cells [2]. Aldosterone enters an epithelial cell and binds to the MR. The complex of aldosterone and MR translocates into the nucleus and regulates gene transcription of, among others, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the signaling proteins and kinases that impact channel and transporter activity, such as serum/glucocorticoid kinases (SGKs).
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 36