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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Isabel Casimiro
Definition: Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are lipid metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the di-oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate active eicosanoid products. 12-lipoxygenases (12-LOXs) primarily oxygenate the 12th carbon of its substrates.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Alexey Komissarov
Definition: Regulated cell death (RCD) is a fundamental process common to nearly all living beings and essential for the development and tissue homeostasis in animals and humans. A wide range of molecules can induce RCD including a number of viral proteolytic enzymes. To date, numerous data indicate that picornaviral 3C proteases can induce RCD. In most reported cases, these proteases induce classical caspase-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, the human hepatitis A virus 3C protease (3Cpro) has recently been shown to cause caspase-independent cell death accompanied by previously undescribed features. In the current topic the results of the study where 3Cpro-induced cell death was characterized morphologically and biochemically are presented. It was found that dead cells demonstrated necrosis-like morphological changes including permeabilization of plasma membrane, loss of mitochondrial potential, as well as mitochondria and nuclei swelling. Additionally, it was shown that 3Cpro-induced cell death was efficiently blocked by ferroptosis inhibitors and was accompanied by intense lipid peroxidation. Taken together, these results indicate that 3Cpro induces ferroptosis upon its individual expression in human cells. This is the first demonstration that a proteolytic enzyme can induce ferroptosis, the recently discovered and actively studied type of RCD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Eric Gottwald
Definition: Bioreactors have proven useful for a vast amount of applications. Besides classical large-scale bioreactors and fermenters for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, micro-bioreactors, as specialized bioreactor systems, have become an invaluable tool for mammalian 3D cell cultures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Guillermo Bordanaba
Definition: The 3D cell cultures allow cells to growth and interact between them and with the extracellular matrix in three dimensions. This conforms a culture structure closer to physiological conditions than the cell monolayers (2D) traditionally employed in cell biology, and it can be achieved by using extracellular matrix hydrogels derived from decellularized tissues, bio-printed scaffolds made of different materials, or by forcing the cells to interact between each other without physical support. 3D culture models provide a powerful tool to understand cell-to-cell interactions when used in co-cultures, and to determine the involvement of extracellular vesicles as major key interactors in cellular crosstalk.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Malin Ã…kerfelt
Definition: The current statistics on cancer show that 90% of all human cancers originate from epithelial cells. Breast and prostate cancer are examples of common tumors of epithelial origin that would benefit from improved drug treatment strategies. About 90% of preclinically approved drugs fail in clinical trials, partially due to the use of too simplified in vitro models and a lack of mimicking the tumor microenvironment in drug efficacy testing. This entry focuses on the epithelial cancers, followed by experimental models designed to recapitulate the epithelial tumor structure and microenvironment. A specific focus is to put on novel technologies for cell culture of spheroids, organoids, and 3D-printed tissue-like models, utilizing biomaterials of natural or synthetic origins, and how the models could be utilized for nanotechnology-based drug delivery in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Jaqueline Loaeza
Definition: The human genome has additional regulation layers for the regulation of transcription. The DNA methylation is a key epigenetic process that sharp in functional regions in the genome. The 5-methylcytosine patterns in promoter regions are related to gene expression regulation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Yi Zhang
Definition: Stress granules are membrane-less organelles formed through the process of liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) under certain stress conditions, such as oxidative stress and heat shock, among others.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Alessandro Carrer
Definition: The carcinogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) progresses according tomulti-step evolution, whereby the disease acquires increasingly aggressive pathological features.Lineage-tracing experiments demonstrated that pancreatic cancerous lesionsoriginate from acinar cells, a highly specialized cell type in the pancreatic epithelium. Acinar cells are polarized, pyramidal-shaped cells containing numerous acidophilic granules near the apical side. Those granules contain inactive proteases, which are activated and released into the tubular network upon activation. Primary acinarcells can survive in vitro as organoid-like 3D spheroids, which can transdifferentiate into cellswith a clear ductal morphology in response to different cell- and non-cell-autonomous stimuli.This event, termed acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, recapitulates the histological and molecular featuresof disease initiation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Judith Blaine
Definition: Proteinuria is one of the hallmarks of kidney disease. Serum proteins such as albumin are prevented from being filtered into the urine by the glomerular filtration barrier of which podocytes are a key part. Podocyte structure and function are dependent on maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton in podocyte foot processes. Foot processes contain two structural and signaling hubs: the slit diaphragm and focal adhesions, both of which maintain foot process integrity and relay signals to and from the podocyte exterior in response to hemodynamic changes. The entry below describes the key components of foot process actin cytoskeleton structure and regulation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Adenosine is a purine nucleoside, resulting from the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Under adverse conditions, including hypoxia, ischemia, inflammation, or cancer, the extracellular levels of adenosine increase significantly. Once released, adenosine activates cellular signaling pathways through the engagement of the four known G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine A1 receptor subtype (A1), A2A, A2B, and A3. These receptors, expressed virtually on all immune cells, mitigate all aspects of immune/inflammatory responses. These immunosuppressive effects contribute to blunt the exuberant inflammatory responses, shielding cells, and tissues from an excessive immune response and immune-mediated damage.
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