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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Francesco Peri
Definition: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that sits in the top 10 leading causes of death in the world today and is the current leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Although there is a licensed vaccine against TB, the Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, it has several limitations, namely its high variability of efficacy in the population and low protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. New vaccines for TB are needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the development and implementation of new TB vaccines to be a priority. Subunit vaccines are promising candidates since they can overcome safety concerns and optimize antigen targeting. Nevertheless, these vaccines need adjuvants in their formulation in order to increase immunogenicity, decrease the needed antigen dose, ensure a targeted delivery and optimize the antigens delivery and interaction with the immune cells.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Definition: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease and the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population world-wide.The used medications treat the symptoms of AD, but without any delay on the progression of the disease. Curcumin presented favorable effects on AD. In the last decade curcumin analogues and derivatives have been synthesized in an attempt to optimize the beneficial properties of curcumin and improve its absorbance and distribution per os as a therapeutic agent. Reviewing the bibliographical data of the last decade, information on the structures and / or chemical groups that are associated with specific action against AD, was gathered, derived from docking studies, (Q)SAR from vitro and in vivo tests. Phenolic hydroxyl groups might contribute to the anti-amyloidogenic activity. Phenyl methoxy groups seems to contribute to the suppression of Aβ42 and to the suppression of APP. Hydrophobic interactions revealed to be important. The presence of flexible moieties at the linker are crucial for the inhibition of Aβ aggregation. The inhibitory activity of derivatives is increased with the expansion of the aromatic rings. The keto-enol tautomer form offers as a new modification for the design of amyloid-binding agents. Taking the above under consideration innovative design and synthesis will lead to more potent and specific curcumin analogues and derivatives against AD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Thomas Mavromoustakos
Definition: Antagonists of the AT1receptor (AT1R) are beneficial molecules that can prevent the peptide hormone angiotensin II from binding and activating the specific receptor causing hypertension in pathological states.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Definition: The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Rodica-Mariana Ion
Definition: Photodynamic inactivation is known as a new antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). It is based on the administration of a photosensitizer located in the bacterial/viral cell followed by exposure to light radiations (with a proper wavelength corresponding with the maximum value of absorption of the photosensitizer) that generate singlet oxygen or reactive oxygen species, which lead to the death of different microorganisms. This review will present an overview beyond the state-of-the-art of the photosensitizer types (based on tetra-p-sulphonated-phenyl porphyrin—TSPP, which is able to form cationic and J-aggregates forms at different pH values ((1–4) and concentrations around 10−5 M) and their applications of PDT for viruses, especially.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Chien Ing Yeo
Definition: Dithiocarbamates and their metal complexes have shown promising antimicrobial activities; the mechanisms responsible for the antimicrobial activity include their ability to act as enzyme inhibitors for (i) fungal, protozoan, and bacterial carbonic anhydrase and (ii) metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) in antibiotic resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Leonid Fershtat
Definition: In a series of known structural classes capable of NO release, heterocyclic NO-donors are of special importance due to their increased hydrolytic stability and low toxicity. It is no wonder that synthetic and biochemical investigations of heterocyclic NO-donors have emerged significantly in recent years. In this review, we summarized recent advances in the synthesis, reactivity and biomedical applications of promising heterocyclic NO-donors (furoxans, sydnone imines, pyridazine dioxides, azasydnones).
Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Zaid Al-Obaidi
Definition: Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease are incurable and affect millions of people worldwide. The development of treatments for this unmet clinical need is a major global research challenge. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) methods minimize the huge number of ligands that could be screened in biological assays, reducing the cost, time, and effort required to develop new drugs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Changgong Xu
Definition: These ketimines are less electrophilic and thus, arguably, more challenging substrates. 3-Aryl-3-hydroxyisoindolin-1-ones are often employed as stable precursors for the corresponding endocyclic N-carbonyl diaryl ketimines. This class of ketimines is useful synthons to access chiral isoindolin-1-ones that are an important motif found in numerous biologically relevant molecules and natural products.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Joseph Bagi Suleiman
Definition: Bee products are sources of functional food that have been used in complementary medicine to treat a variety of acute and chronic illnesses in many parts of the world. The products vary from location to location as well as country to country.
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