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Submitted by: Aristeidis Tsagkaris
Pesticides have been extensively used in agriculture to protect crops and enhance their yields, indicating the need to monitor for their toxic residues in foodstuff. To achieve that, chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry is the common analytical approach, combining low limits of detection, wide linear ranges, and high accuracy. However, these methods are also quite expensive, time-consuming, and require highly skilled personnel, indicating the need to seek for alternatives providing simple, low-cost, rapid, and on-site results. In this study, we critically review the available screening methods for pesticide residues on the basis of optical detection during the period 2016–2020. Optical biosensors are commonly miniaturized analytical platforms introducing the point-of-care (POC) era in the field. Various optical detection principles have been utilized, namely, colorimetry, fluorescence (FL), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Nanomaterials can significantly enhance optical detection performance and handheld platforms, for example, handheld SERS devices can revolutionize testing. All in all, despite being in an early stage facing several challenges, i.e., long sample preparation protocols, such POC diagnostics pave a new road into the food safety field in which analysis cost will be reduced and a more intensive testing will be achieved.
Submitted by: Albert Rimola
The main objective of computational chemistry is to solve chemical problems by simulating chemical systems (molecular, biological, materials) in order to provide reliable, accurate and comprehensive information at an atomic level. To this end, there are two main methodological families: those based on quantum chemical methods and those based on molecular mechanics. The former are methods in which the electrons are explicitly accounted for, while in the latter their presence is hidden in the force field. 
Anodizing is an electrochemical process by which the thickness of the natural oxide layer present on metals is increased. Anodizing is used to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the substrate, to enhance the adhesion of coatings and for aesthetics reasons. The properties, chemistry and morphology of the resulting anodic oxide film depend on the anodizing parameters chosen.
Submitted by: Laura García-Vega
Connexin 26, one of the smallest connexins, is expressed in diverse epithelial tissue and mutations in this protein are associated with hearing loss, skin and eye conditions of differing severity.
Submitted by: Qamar Uddin Ahmed
In recent years, there is emerging evidence that isoflavonoids could play an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their reported pronounced biological effects in relation to multiple metabolic factors associated with diabetes. Hence, in this regard, we have comprehensively reviewed the potential biological effects of isoflavonoids, particularly biochanin A, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and formononetin on metabolic disorders and long-term complications induced by T2DM in order to understand whether they can be future candidates as a safe antidiabetic agent. Based on in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies evaluations, isoflavonoids have been found to activate gene expression through the stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (α, γ), modulate carbohydrate metabolism, regulate hyperglycemia, induce dyslipidemia, lessen insulin resistance, and modify adipocyte differentiation and tissue metabolism. Moreover, these natural compounds have also been found to attenuate oxidative stress through the oxidative signaling process and inflammatory mechanism. Hence, isoflavonoids have been envisioned to be able to prevent and slow down the progression of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. 
Submitted by: Masahiro Miyauchi
Methane reforming is an important potential technology for solving both environmental and energy problems. This technology is important because methane is counted as a greenhouse gas, but on the other hand, it can be reformed into industrially valuable compounds.
Submitted by: Marianna Martinello
Bee products have been used since ancient times both for their nutritional value and for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes. They are deemed to be a potential source of natural antioxidants that can counteract the effects of oxidative stress underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases.
Submitted by: Ping GENG
Grifola frondosa (G. frondosa) is a Basidiomycetes fungus that belongs to the family of Grifolaceae and the order of Polyporales.
Submitted by: Gregor Marolt
Phytate is a six-fold dihydrogenphosphate ester of myo‑inositol or cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol which is the most abundant of nine possible isomers of inositol (Ins). Myo-orientation is also found in the case of phytic acid, which is due to the fact that the maximal number (i.e., five out of six) of phosphate groups are present in thermodynamically stabilized equatorial position. However, the molecule can be inverted from equatorial (1a5e) to the axial (5a1e) orientation between pH 9.0 and pH 9.5.
Submitted by: Michele Tonelli
Naphthoquinone (NQ) and Anthraquinone (AQ) compounds have gained considerable interest from researchers in diverse pharmacological settings due to their biological activities, making them attractive building blocks for drug development. The literature contains many examples of NQ and AQ-based compounds, mainly derived from natural sources or synthetic, that also demonstrated promising properties against diverse AD targets. The NQ or AQ scaffolds may contribute to the biological effect against AD as main units or significant substructures. In particular, hybrid- and fragment-based drug design strategies allowed the identification of multifunctional NQ and AQ molecules, which displayed antioxidant activity and the ability to inhibit ChEs, BACE, Aβ and tau aggregation. 
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