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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Agostinho Lemos
Definition: The suitability of the 18F radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) demanded novel approaches for 18F-fluorination and 18F-fluoroalkylation. The difluoromethyl (CF2H) group has gained increasing attention in medicinal chemistry due to its lipophilic hydrogen-bond donor properties. In non-radioactive chemistry, difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones has been extensively used in difluoromethylation of substrates bearing C=C, C≡C, and C≡N bonds by visible light photoredox catalysis. Herein, we highlight our recent work on the synthesis of [18F]difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones with improved molar activities and their application in photoinduced C-H 18F-difluoromethylation of N-containing heteroarenes via a radical-mediated pathway.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mohammad Nur E Alam
Definition: The development of magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) has been a rapidly evolving research area since the late 1990s. Magneto-optic (MO) materials and the techniques for their characterization have also continually undergone functional and property-related improvements. MPC Optimization is a feature-rich Windows software application designed to enable researchers to analyse the optical and magneto-optical spectral properties of multilayers containing gyrotropic constituents. A set of computational approaches, and a custom software package have been described, designed to enable the design and optimization of 1D magnetic photonic crystals in terms of the achievable combinations of Faraday rotation, transmission, and reflection spectra.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Paul Chinonso Uzoma
Definition: Materials can be rightly characterized as 2D material or nanosheet if only one of its dimensions is in nano-size, they usually resemble a large sheet with one or few atomic thickness layers (more like a sheet of paper). This explains the fundamental characteristic of 2D materials and their unique properties that made them very attractive in tribological applications. Also, the method of preparation of the materials are highlighted.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Houwen Matthew Pan
Definition: Osteoarthritis of the knee with meniscal pathologies is a severe meniscal pathology suffered by the aging population worldwide. However, conventional meniscal substitutes are not 3D-printable and lack the customizability of 3D printed implants and are not mechanically robust enough for human implantation. Similarly, 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds suffer from drawbacks of being mechanically weak and as a result patients are unable to execute immediate post-surgical weight-bearing ambulation and rehabilitation. To solve this problem, we have developed a 3D silicone meniscus implant which is (1) cytocompatible, (2) resistant to cyclic loading and mechanically similar to native meniscus, and (3) directly 3D printable. The main focus of this study is to determine whether the purity, composition, structure, dimensions and mechanical properties of silicone implants are affected by the use of a custom-made in-house 3D-printer. We have used the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) absorption test, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface profilometry, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to effectively assess and compare material properties between molded and 3D printed silicone samples.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Soon Hee Kim
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Naba Dutta
Definition: Electrically conductive hydrogels (ECHs), an emerging class of biomaterials, have garnered tremendous attention due to their potential for a wide variety of biomedical applications, from tissue-engineered scaffolds to smart bioelectronics. Along with the development of new hydrogel systems, 3D printing of such ECHs is one of the most advanced approaches towards rapid fabrication of future biomedical implants and devices with versatile designs and tuneable functionalities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Waleed Ahmed
Definition: Current environmental concerns have led to a search of more environmentally friendly manufacturing methods, thus, natural fibers have gained attention in the 3D printing industry to be used as biofilters along with thermoplastics. The utilization of natural fibers is very convenient as they are easily available, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and biodegradable. Using natural fibers rather than synthetic fibers in the production of the 3D printing filaments will reduces gas emissions associated with the production of the synthetic fibers that would add to the current pollution problem. As a matter of fact, natural fibers have a reinforcing effect on plastics. This review analyzes how the properties of the different types of polymers vary when natural fibers processed to produce filaments for 3D Printing are added. The results of using natural fibers for 3D Printing are presented in this study and appeared to be satisfactory, while a limited number of studies have reported some issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Atiqah Salleh
Definition: Silver (Ag) is a chemical element that has provided promising results in various fields such as medicine, electronics, and household applications, e.g., silver sulfadiazine has been used as a standard treatment for burn wounds to prevent the formation of biofilm on the wound area, thus enhancing the wound recovery progress. Silver is a part of transition metals and has been classified as a precious metal due to its decreasing availability. Silver has interesting properties, yet the uses of the materials are limited due to silver instability towards oxygen. Silver metal will oxidize spontaneously when exposed to free oxygen molecules. In these past few years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies which lead to substantial progress in the production of nanomaterials. Thus, it had made possible to produce silver in nanoscale and these emerging nanoparticle products have attracted interest due to their physical, chemical, and biological properties in comparison with their macro-scaled counterparts. These properties are being assessed through various analytical techniques.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Yi-Kuang Yen
Definition: A graphene and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modified conductive paper-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) aptasensor has been successfully fabricated by a simple and continuous coating process. A graphene/PEDOT:PSS modified paper electrode forms the nanocomposite providing a conductive and sensitive substrate for further aptamer functionalization of the biosensor. This low-cost paper-based aptasensor exhibits its sensitivity to carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) in standard buffer solutions and human serum samples in a linear range of 0.77–14 ng·mL−1. The limit of detection (LOD) is found to be 0.45 ng·mL−1and 1.06 ng·mL−1for CEA in both samples, separately. This aptamer-based sensing device was also evaluated and received a good correlation with the immunoassay detection method. The proposed paper-based aptasensor has demonstrated its potential as a rapid simple point-of-care analytical platform for early cancer diagnosis in less developed areas where manufacturing facilities, analytical instruments, and trained specialists are limited.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Luigi Monsù Scolaro
Definition: The zinc(II) metal derivative of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS4) is quite labile and readily demetallates under acidic conditions, affording the parent diacid porphyrin in a monomeric form. The rate of this process is first order on [ZnTPPS4] and second order on [H+], allowing a precise control of the monomer release in solution. Under high ionic strength, this latter species is able to self-assemble into J-aggregates, whose kinetics of growth are largely modulated by pH. The aggregation kinetics have been treated according to a well-established model, in which the formation of an initial nucleus is the rate determining step preceding the autocatalytic growth of the whole assembly. The extinction spectra of the aggregates suggest the occurrence of a dipolar coupling mechanism very similar to that operating in metal nanoparticles. Spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place in these aggregates as evidenced by unusual circular dichroism spectra. The intensity and sign of the effect is controlled by the aggregation rate and therefore can be tuned through a proper choice of initial conditions.
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