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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL (high density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, and hypertension, is known to be a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is considered one of the most important preventable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, whose prevalence is increasing.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Fulvio Massaro
Definition: Aging of bone marrow is a complex process that is involved in the development of many diseases, including hematologic cancers. The results obtained in this field of research, year after year, underline the important role of cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells and their close environment. In bone marrow, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major player in cell-to-cell communication, presenting a wide range of functionalities, sometimes opposite, depending on the environmental conditions. Although these cells are actively studied for their therapeutic properties, their role in tumor progression remains unclear. One of the reasons for this is that the aging of MSCs has a direct impact on their behavior and on hematopoiesis. In addition, tumor progression is accompanied by dynamic remodeling of the bone marrow niche that may interfere with MSC functions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: František Babič
Definition: Multimorbidity refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in one person. Therefore, patients with multimorbidity have multiple and special care needs. However, in practice it is difficult to meet these needs because the organizational processes of current healthcare systems tend to be tailored to a single disease. To improve clinical decision making and patient care in multimorbidity, a radical change in the problem-solving approach to medical research and treatment is needed. In addition to the traditional reductionist approach, we propose interactive research supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced big data analytics. Such research approach, when applied to data routinely collected in healthcare settings, provides an integrated platform for research tasks related to multimorbidity. This may include, for example, prediction, correlation, and classification problems based on multiple interaction factors. However, to realize the idea of this paradigm shift in multimorbidity research, the optimization, standardization, and most importantly, the integration of electronic health data into a common national and international research infrastructure is needed. Ultimately, there is a need for the integration and implementation of efficient AI approaches, particularly deep learning, into clinical routine directly within the workflows of the medical professionals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Sebastian Majewski
Definition: Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and a global public health concern. In 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), ambient air pollution in cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths. It is estimated that around 91% of the world’s population lives in places where air pollution exceeds the limits recommended by the WHO. Sources of air pollution are multiple and context-specific. Air pollution exposures are established risk factors for development and adverse health outcomes in many respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer. However, possible associations between air pollution and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have not been adequately studied and air pollution seems to be an underrecognized risk factor for IPF.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Lindsay Wolfson
Definition: Understanding the factors that contribute to women’s alcohol use in pregnancy is of critical importance to women's health and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Alcohol use in pregnancy is influenced by a range of contextual and structural factors, including poverty, histories of trauma and violence, physical and mental health concerns, normalization of alcohol in social networks, sociocultural and economic vulnerabilities and disadvantage, and child welfare involvement. Therefore, beyond supporting individual change, it is necessary to address a range of structural and systemic issues through the adoption of emerging gender-, trauma-, cultural, and equity-informed interventions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: Microalgae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic microscopic single-cell organisms, producinga great variety of compounds, such as photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls), sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, polysaccharides, enzymes, peptides, and toxins. In recent years, they have attracted great interest as a major source of bioactive medicinal products and food ingredients with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. In most pre-clinical studies performed with Euglena gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, or Nitzschia laevis microalgae, positive anti-obesity effects have been addressed in animals submitted to an obesogenic feeding pattern. However, more research is warranted to determine which bioactive compound(s) are responsible for their anti-obesity effects, as well as to establish the mechanisms underlying those effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Deog-Hwan Oh
Definition: As the situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still de-teriorating, there has been a huge increase in the demand and use of disinfectants. Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Jiri Kantor
Definition: Eating disorders (EDs) are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances to people’s everyday diet. Since EDs are on the rise throughout the world, healthcare policies and practitioners need to research different treatment options and their affectivity, value for patients, and cost effectiveness, in order to make any substantial change to the growth of this disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2020
Definition: Research shows the beneficial effects of applying Augmented Reality technology to improve different abilities in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: cognitive and emotional processes, social communication, theory of mind, attention, and functional and motor outcomes.
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