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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Definition: The consumption of whole grain products is often related to beneficial effects on consumer health. Dietary fibre is an important component present in whole grains and is believed to be (at least partially) responsible for these health benefits. The dietary fibre composition of whole grains is very distinct over different grains. Whole grains of cereals and pseudo-cereals are rich in both soluble and insoluble functional dietary fibre that can be largely classified as e.g., cellulose, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, xyloglucan and fructan. However, even though the health benefits associated with the consumption of dietary fibre are well known to scientists, producers and consumers, the consumption of dietary fibre and whole grains around the world is substantially lower than the recommended levels. This review will discuss the types of dietary fibre commonly found in cereals and pseudo-cereals, their nutritional significance and health benefits observed in animal and human studies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Crystal Karakochuk
Definition: Oral contraceptive use has been associated with decreased menstrual blood losses; thus, can independently reduce the risk of anemia and iron deficiency in women. Manufacturers have recently started to include supplemental iron in the non-hormonal placebo tablets of some contraceptives.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Pedro L. Valenzuela
Definition: Ketogenic diets (KDs) aim at inducing physiological ketosis (i.e., an increase in the concentration of ketone bodies in blood, usually above >0.5 mmol/L) through a marked reduction in carbohydrate intake (commonly <50 g/d or <10% of total energy intake). KDs have gained popularity in recent years among athletes. By virtue of the restriction they induce in carbohydrate availability, KDs promote the use of ketone bodies (i.e., acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)) as an alternative energy substrate for different body tissues. Owing to the low carbohydrate availability induced by this type of diet, KDs induce a metabolic switch towards a greater reliance on fatty acids, which are required for the production of ketone bodies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 May 2021
Submitted by: Nevin Harper
Definition: Outdoor therapies are intentional therapeutic processes that are (1) place-based, (2) feature active bodily engagement, and (3) recognize nature-human kinship. Significant variety exists in practice, from walk and talk therapy, to expedition-based wilderness therapy, to garden and animal-assisted therapies. These approaches have shown improvement across a wide range of social, emotional, physical, physiological, and psychological outcomes and populations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Simona Zaami
Definition: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism and neoplastic transformation. Recent studies have tried to clarify the significance of these information carriers in the genesis and progression of various cancers and their use as biomarkers for the disease; possible targets for the inhibition of growth and invasion by the neoplastic cells have been suggested. The significance of ncRNAs in lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and melanoma has been amply investigated with important results. Recently, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has also been included in cancer studies. Studies on the relation between endometrial cancer (EC) and ncRNAs, such as small ncRNAs or micro RNAs (miRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), antisense RNAs (asRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), lncRNAs, and long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) have been published. The recent literature produced in the last three years was extracted from PubMed by two independent readers, which was then selected for the possible relation between ncRNAs, oncogenesis in general, and EC in particular.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Christina Salvador
Definition: Epidemiological literature suggests a protective effect of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cancer. They are attributed to have significant anti-inflammatory properties, and are reported to directly inhibit carcinogenesis and tumor expansion, whilst also reducing the risk for secondary complications, thus representing a promising approach for adjunctive chemotherapy treatment. At the same time, the incidence of malnutrition amongst children with cancer is high and both under- and overnutrition are associated with detrimental consequences, including increased risks for morbidity and mortality, early relapse rates, and a higher prevalence of secondary complications during treatment. Taken together with the benefits of n-3 PUFA supplementation, an enhancement of the nutritional status is a potentially modifiable prognostic factor in pediatric oncology.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Maria Cardona
Definition: Physical activity (PA) has emerged as an alternative nonpharmacological approach to effectively address the effects of dementia. This is mainly because regular PA improves the strength of cells and tissues to respond to oxidative stress, vascularization, and energy metabolism and also allows neurotropic effects through neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations, which contribute to brain plasticity, memory improvement, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity [15]. These processes attenuate for the loss of brain tissue while the brain is ageing [14].
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Sally Griffin
Definition: Preoperative VLCD and LCD interventions provided for one to three weeks to patients with overweight, obesity, higher amounts of visceral fat, or liver steatosis have potential to reduce operating time and blood loss during non-bariatric elective surgeries within the abdominal cavity, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy, liver resection, and gastrectomy. Although the benefits were likely in studies that used dietary interventions longer than three weeks in other surgery types, they were less clear due to the lack of comparator groups and common surgical endpoints.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Hidetaka Hamasaki
Definition: Wearable activity trackers are devices that are comfortably worn on the body and are designed to be effective in monitoring daily physical activity and improving physical fitness of the wearer. This review aimed to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on physical activity measured using wearable activity trackers and discuss future perspectives on wearable activity trackers during pandemics. Daily physical activity was significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Sharon Nobuntu Maseko
Definition: Primary health care (PHC) is the first point of contact in a health system for most patients. It focuses on providing community-based health services that are equitable, comprehensive, affordable and accessible to all, throughout the life-course of an individual.
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