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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Anil Babu Payedimarri
Definition: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have expanded their utilization in different fields of medicine. During the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, AI and ML were also applied for the evaluation and/or implementation of public health interventions aimed to flatten the epidemiological curve.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: František Babič
Definition: Multimorbidity refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in one person. Therefore, patients with multimorbidity have multiple and special care needs. However, in practice it is difficult to meet these needs because the organizational processes of current healthcare systems tend to be tailored to a single disease. To improve clinical decision making and patient care in multimorbidity, a radical change in the problem-solving approach to medical research and treatment is needed. In addition to the traditional reductionist approach, we propose interactive research supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced big data analytics. Such research approach, when applied to data routinely collected in healthcare settings, provides an integrated platform for research tasks related to multimorbidity. This may include, for example, prediction, correlation, and classification problems based on multiple interaction factors. However, to realize the idea of this paradigm shift in multimorbidity research, the optimization, standardization, and most importantly, the integration of electronic health data into a common national and international research infrastructure is needed. Ultimately, there is a need for the integration and implementation of efficient AI approaches, particularly deep learning, into clinical routine directly within the workflows of the medical professionals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Yang Wang
Definition: Biofilms are aggregates formed as a protective survival state by microorganisms to adapt to the environment and can be resistant to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses due to chemical or physical diffusion barriers, modified nutrient environments, suppression of the growth rate within biofilms, and the genetic adaptation of cells within biofilms. With the widespread use of medical devices, medical device-associated biofilms continue to pose a serious threat to human health, and these biofilms have become the most important source of nosocomial infections. However, traditional antimicrobial agents cannot completely eliminate medical device-associated biofilms. New strategies for the treatment of these biofilms and targeting biofilm infections are urgently required. Several novel approaches have been developed and identified as effective and promising treatments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Min Cheol Chang
Definition: Blockchain technology, a distributed ledger based on peer to peer networks, has been gaining high popularity in healthcare.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Elisa Luconi
Definition: Bruxism is defined as “a repetitive jaw-muscle activity that is characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible,” and is distinguished into sleep bruxism (SB) or awake bruxism (AB), depending on its circadian phenotype. Its role in children and adolescents with Down syndrome is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to conduct a narrative review of the literature about bruxism in children and adolescents with Down syndrome to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and possible treatments of this disorder.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Definition: The advances achieved in recent decades regarding cardiac surgery have led to a new risk that goes beyond surgeons’ dexterity; postoperative hours are crucial for cardiac surgery patients and are usually spent in intensive care units (ICUs), where the patients need to be continuously monitored to adjust their treatment. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have been developed to take this real-time information and provide clinical suggestions to physicians in order to reduce medical errors and to improve patient recovery.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Christos Yapijakis
Definition: Child and adolescent obesity constitute one of the greatest contemporary public health menaces. The enduring disproportion between calorie intake and energy consumption, determined by a complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, finally leads to the development of overweight and obesity. Child and adolescent overweight/obesity promotes smoldering systemic inflammation (“para-inflammation”) and increases the likelihood of later metabolic and cardiovascular complications, including metabolic syndrome and its components, which progressively deteriorate during adulthood. Exosomes are endosome-derived extracellular vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells, are naturally taken-up by target cells, and may be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Over the last decade, intensive research has been conducted regarding the special role of exosomes and the non-coding (nc) RNAs they contain (primarily micro (mi) RNAs, long (l) non-coding RNAs, messenger (m) RNAs and other molecules) in inter-cellular communications. Through their action as communication mediators, exosomes may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and associated disorders. There is increasing evidence that exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs are involved in pivotal processes of adipocyte biology and that, possibly, play important roles in gene regulation linked to human obesity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Terry Guirado
Definition: Classroom active desks refer to the desks placed in the classroom and can be moved in teaching activities. This entry was to examine the effects of active desks in the school setting on sedentary behavior, physical activity, academic achievements and overall health among children and adolescents aged 5–17 years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: William Evans
Definition: As more approved COVID-19 vaccines are made available and supply meets or exceeds demand, medical and public health professionals will increasingly be faced with the challenge of vaccine hesitancy. This article describes a demand creation strategy to overcome COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using methods and evidence from behavioral science and social marketing, and describes a specific campaign aimed at increasing vaccination rates in high supply settings.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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