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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Camille Jacques
Definition: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Grazia Cicirelli
Definition: Over the last decade, there has been considerable and increasing interest in the development of Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems to support independent living. The demographic change towards an aging population has introduced new challenges to today’s society from both an economic and societal standpoint. AAL can provide an array of solutions for improving the quality of life of individuals, for allowing people to live healthier and independently for longer, for helping people with disabilities, and for supporting caregivers and medical staff.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 May 2021
Submitted by: Anil Babu Payedimarri
Definition: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have expanded their utilization in different fields of medicine. During the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, AI and ML were also applied for the evaluation and/or implementation of public health interventions aimed to flatten the epidemiological curve.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jun 2021
Submitted by: František Babič
Definition: Multimorbidity refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in one person. Therefore, patients with multimorbidity have multiple and special care needs. However, in practice it is difficult to meet these needs because the organizational processes of current healthcare systems tend to be tailored to a single disease. To improve clinical decision making and patient care in multimorbidity, a radical change in the problem-solving approach to medical research and treatment is needed. In addition to the traditional reductionist approach, we propose interactive research supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced big data analytics. Such research approach, when applied to data routinely collected in healthcare settings, provides an integrated platform for research tasks related to multimorbidity. This may include, for example, prediction, correlation, and classification problems based on multiple interaction factors. However, to realize the idea of this paradigm shift in multimorbidity research, the optimization, standardization, and most importantly, the integration of electronic health data into a common national and international research infrastructure is needed. Ultimately, there is a need for the integration and implementation of efficient AI approaches, particularly deep learning, into clinical routine directly within the workflows of the medical professionals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Myoungsook Lee
Definition: Anthocyanin is a natural soluble pigment in the flavonoid group. Approximately 635 or more structures have been found in nature and more than 30 types of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins have been identified based on the number and position of the hydroxyl group. The common aglycones are pelargonidin (Pg), cyanidin (Cy), peonidin (Pn), delphinidin (Dp), petunidin (Pt), and malvidin (Mv), but Cy-3-glucoside was widely distributed. Anthocyanins are mostly absorbed through the gastric wall with absorption rates of 10–22%, depending on chemical structure, and the bioavailability is approximately 0.26–1.8%. Anthocyanins produce antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), eye diseases, and in suppressing cancer cell growth.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Wenjuan CONG
Definition: There is an urgent need for further research and guidance in this field, from producing evidence-based guidelines, reassessing biomarkers for antimicrobial stewardship in COVID-19 patients, understanding drivers, benefits, and disbenefits of antibiotic use, and assessing the wider impact of the pandemic on antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR. In this scoping review, we aim to: add to the research evidence on prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients; identify the most commonly used antibiotics and clinical scenarios associated with AMU; and to explore any impact of AMU on patient treatment outcomes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Yang Wang
Definition: Biofilms are aggregates formed as a protective survival state by microorganisms to adapt to the environment and can be resistant to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses due to chemical or physical diffusion barriers, modified nutrient environments, suppression of the growth rate within biofilms, and the genetic adaptation of cells within biofilms. With the widespread use of medical devices, medical device-associated biofilms continue to pose a serious threat to human health, and these biofilms have become the most important source of nosocomial infections. However, traditional antimicrobial agents cannot completely eliminate medical device-associated biofilms. New strategies for the treatment of these biofilms and targeting biofilm infections are urgently required. Several novel approaches have been developed and identified as effective and promising treatments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Apr 2021
Definition: Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study focused on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Min Cheol Chang
Definition: Blockchain technology, a distributed ledger based on peer to peer networks, has been gaining high popularity in healthcare.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Elisa Luconi
Definition: Bruxism is defined as “a repetitive jaw-muscle activity that is characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible,” and is distinguished into sleep bruxism (SB) or awake bruxism (AB), depending on its circadian phenotype. Its role in children and adolescents with Down syndrome is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to conduct a narrative review of the literature about bruxism in children and adolescents with Down syndrome to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and possible treatments of this disorder.
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