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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Camille Jacques
Definition: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: JING TAN
Definition: Academic emotions can have different influences on learning effects, but these have not been systematically studied.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Grazia Cicirelli
Definition: Over the last decade, there has been considerable and increasing interest in the development of Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems to support independent living. The demographic change towards an aging population has introduced new challenges to today’s society from both an economic and societal standpoint. AAL can provide an array of solutions for improving the quality of life of individuals, for allowing people to live healthier and independently for longer, for helping people with disabilities, and for supporting caregivers and medical staff.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Luis D'Marco
Definition: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered one of the most massive epidemics of the twenty-first century due to its high mortality rates caused mainly due to its complications; therefore, the early identification of such complications becomes a race against time to establish a prompt diagnosis. The research of complications of DM over the years has allowed the development of numerous alternatives for diagnosis. Among these emerge the quantification of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) given their increased levels due to chronic hyperglycemia, while also being related to the induction of different stress-associated cellular responses and proinflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression of chronic complications of DM. Additionally, the investigation for more valuable and safe techniques has led to developing a newer, noninvasive, and effective tool, termed skin fluorescence (SAF).
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 May 2021
Submitted by: Anil Babu Payedimarri
Definition: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have expanded their utilization in different fields of medicine. During the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, AI and ML were also applied for the evaluation and/or implementation of public health interventions aimed to flatten the epidemiological curve.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Sep 2021
Submitted by: František Babič
Definition: Multimorbidity refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in one person. Therefore, patients with multimorbidity have multiple and special care needs. However, in practice it is difficult to meet these needs because the organizational processes of current healthcare systems tend to be tailored to a single disease. To improve clinical decision making and patient care in multimorbidity, a radical change in the problem-solving approach to medical research and treatment is needed. In addition to the traditional reductionist approach, we propose interactive research supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced big data analytics. Such research approach, when applied to data routinely collected in healthcare settings, provides an integrated platform for research tasks related to multimorbidity. This may include, for example, prediction, correlation, and classification problems based on multiple interaction factors. However, to realize the idea of this paradigm shift in multimorbidity research, the optimization, standardization, and most importantly, the integration of electronic health data into a common national and international research infrastructure is needed. Ultimately, there is a need for the integration and implementation of efficient AI approaches, particularly deep learning, into clinical routine directly within the workflows of the medical professionals.
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Videos
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Myoungsook Lee
Definition: Anthocyanin is a natural soluble pigment in the flavonoid group. Approximately 635 or more structures have been found in nature and more than 30 types of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins have been identified based on the number and position of the hydroxyl group. The common aglycones are pelargonidin (Pg), cyanidin (Cy), peonidin (Pn), delphinidin (Dp), petunidin (Pt), and malvidin (Mv), but Cy-3-glucoside was widely distributed. Anthocyanins are mostly absorbed through the gastric wall with absorption rates of 10–22%, depending on chemical structure, and the bioavailability is approximately 0.26–1.8%. Anthocyanins produce antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), eye diseases, and in suppressing cancer cell growth.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Gina La Hera-Fuentes
Definition: Messages from peer-reviewed papers were compared against the content of health promotion campaigns for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander pregnant women from Australia. Empirical studies highlighted women sought holistic care that incorporated nicotine replacement therapy, engaged with their family and community and the potential for education about smoking cessation to empower a woman. Health promotion campaigns had a strong focus on ‘engagement with family and community’, ‘knowledge of risks of smoking,’ ‘giving up vs cutting down’ and ‘culture in language and arts’. There were similarities and variances in the key themes in the research evidence and promotion materials. Topics highly aligned included risks from smoking and quitting related issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Nahla Eltai
Definition: It is axiomatic that hospital admissions increase risks of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), leading to a noticeable increase in antibiotic consumption. A recent study conducted on ICU patients in 88 countries highlighted that 70% of hospitalized patients receive at least one antibiotic during acute admission; of this cohort 54% developed a secondary bacterial infection that necessitated antibiotic therapy. In patients with severe disease, the WHO recommends the provision of antimicrobial therapy to prevent furthers infection complications, leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure.
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